Bangalore

    About the center

    Bangalore centre was established as a soil correlation centre in the year 1956 under Ministry of Agriculture (GOI) and brought under ICAR in 1969. With the establishment of NBSS & LUP in 1976 it became the regional centre. The Regional Centre, Bangalore is mandated with generation of land/soil resources data for the operational jurisdiction of the southern India viz. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep islands, Puducherry, and Tamil Nadu,. The activities of Research, Human Resource Development and user interactions are taken up in the following core areas of competence.

    • Land / Soil resource survey and mapping
    • Soil Correlation
    • Land Evaluation and Socio-Economic Analysis for land use planning
    • Remote Sensing Applications
    • GIS Applications
    • Watershed Management
    • Climatic and Hydrological data analysis
    • Agro-ecological Zonations

    The Centre located in the Hebbal campus of Veterinary Sciences, Bangalore headed by a Principal Scientist belonging to Agricultural Research Service of ICAR and has Scientific, Technical and Administrative staff.

    Mandate
    • Soil survey and mapping of the soils of Southern states Viz., Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa, Puducherry and Lakhshadeep at watershed, tehsil/Mandal, district, state and regional level to promote scientific land use programmes in collaboration with state soil survey and land use organization, state agricultural universities and other user agencies.
    • To prepare perspective (at state and district level) and participatory (at village/micro watershed level) land use planning by integrating land resources, socio-economic data base through close linkages with State Land Use Boards and line departments, Commodity Boards, Forest Departments, etc.
    • To conduct and promote research in areas of pedology, soil survey, land evaluation and land use planning.
    • Soil correlation, classification and characterization of benchmark soils at soil series level in liaison with state soil survey organizations.
    • Education and research activities in collaboration with University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in awarding M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees.
    • Consultancy services in the fields of Bureau’s specialization and expertise
    List of Scientist
    Name Designation Discipline E-mail  
    Dr. Rajendra Hegde Principal Scientist & Head Agronomy rhegdesirsi@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Dr. B. P. Bhaskar Principal Scientist Soil Science bhaskar_phaneendra@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. S.C. Ramesh Kumar Principal Scientist Agril. Economics scrameshkumar@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. V. Ramamurthy Principal Scientist Agronomy ramamurthy20464@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. K.S.Anil kumar Principal Scientist Soil Science anilsoil@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. S. Srinivas Senior Scientist Comp. applications in Agriculture ssvsrinivas@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Sh. S.P. Maske Scientist (Sr. Scale) SWC Engineering sunilmaske@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. S. Dharumarajan Scientist Soil Science sdharmag@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. R. Srinivasan Scientist Soil Science srinivasan.surya@gmail.com View Biodata
    Mrs. Vasundhara R. Scientist Soil Science vasundharagowda@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr.(Ms) M. Lalitha Scientist Soil Science mslalit@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Ms. M. Chandrakala Scientist Soil Science Chandra.ssac@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. Kalaiselvi B. Scientist Soil Science kalaimitra15@gmail.com View Biodata
    Infrastructure

    The physical facilities available at the centre include :

    A spacious building for office and various laboratories

    • Trainees hostel and guest house
    • Well equipped Physical and Chemical soil analysis laboratory,
    • Lecture hall for training and teaching,
    • Well stocked library,
    • GIS and remote sensed data analysis laboratory,
    • Cartographic laboratory and
    • Six vehicles for field work (Marshall), one gypsy, one minibus for training purposes
    • One Innova (Staff Car)

    Soil analysis laboratory

    • The centre has a well-equipped soil analysis laboratory with trained manpower. The lab has facilities for analysis of physical and chemical properties of soils, hydrological properties, plant nutrients (macro and micro) in the soil and soil contaminants.

    Instruments available in the Laboratory

    • Atomic Absorption spectrometer
    • Spectrophotometer (visible)
    • Flame photometer
    • Remi Research Centrifuge
    • Remi Rotary Shaker with 100 clamps
    • Remi Rotary Shaker with 64 clamps
    • Digital pH meter
    • Digital conductivity meter
    • Digital 500 g balance (2 decimal)
    • Digital 200 g balance (3 decimal)
    • Rectangular hot plate
    • Hot Air oven
    • Millipore water purification system
    • Pelican Nitrogen Digestion Distillation
    • Clevenger Distillation unit

    GIS and Remote Sensed Data Analysis Laboratory

    • The centre has a well equipped GIS and image analysis laboratory. The lab with networked computing facility has all the necessary hardware, software and trained manpower.
    • The hardware includes a network server, 10 workstations, 25 desktops, 2 large format plotters, one A0 scanner and 15 No'S of A4 printers, One A4 Laser Colour printer, 3, No’s A4 Desk jet printers and 5 No'S of Laptops. Besides generic softwares the lab has image analysis software and seven GIS softwares (Arc Info, Spans, Autocad map, Map Info, Geomatica ver. 10, TNTMIPS, Easy trace, R2V).
    • The lab besides supporting spatial data processing requirements of land/soil resources information generated by the centre is also actively involved in human resource development.
    • Many models have been developed for specific needs and customisation of software’s are also being taken up.

    Cartographic laboratory

    • The center's cartographic laboratory supports map making and is well stocked with Survey of India topographic sheets of the region at all scales.

    Pedonorium

    • It has been established in 1970’s – the exhibits of which depict the location and extent of typical soils of southern states along with detailed relevant soil information in order to educate trainees, research scholars and other visitors engaged in soil resource studies for land use planning.

    This centre also conducts training on Soil monolith preparation techniques to official's of state and other institutes.

    Achievement (Project completed with very brief note)

    Institute Projects

    1. Analysis of soil variability in rubber growing areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu generation of district-wise thematic maps and soil qualities
      Rubber growing areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu was reinterpreted. Grouped 62 soil series were identified and mapped into 13 clusters based on soil depth, gravelliness and organic carbon content. District wise thematic maps were generated and submitted to RRII, Kottayam for generating site specific Agro technologies.
    2. Assessment of land and soil resources of Malapuram district (part) at 1:50,000 scale for land use Planning
      Land resources of Malappuram district was surveyed at 1:50,000. 46 soil series associations and about 51 soil mapping units were identified and mapped. Dominant area is occupied by the family; Fine/ clayey-skeletal, mixed isohyperthermic Ustic Kandihumults. Soil based thematic maps namely soil depth, gravellinesss, Land Capability, Land irrigability and Land suitability for major crops were prepared.
    3. Nutrient Indexing and soil fertility Assessment of Kole lands
      Soil fertility analysis and maps for 20 panchayats of kole lands were completed.
    4. Land resource inventory and GIS database for farm planning in Keelvelur and Keelaiyur blocks, Nagapattinam district and Cuddalore block, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu
      Land resource database was generated for farm level planning at 1:12,500 map scale. 14 soil series with 87 phases were identified. Severe sheet erosion and coarse fragments were observed as major constraints in uplands and Salinity and water logging as major problem in low lands. Thematic maps and report for Keelvelur, Keelaiyur and Cuddalore blocks were submitted to the Department of Agriculture.
    5. Assessment of land resources for growing horticultural crops in selected districts of Tamil Nadu under the National Horticultural Mission Project
      Soil suitability of 14 districts were evaluated for 23 horticultural crops (Fruit, vegetable, medicinal aromatic, flower crops) Suitability maps were generated to identify clusters at district level to serve as ready reckoner for promotion of crops and strategies suggested to increase productivity of horticultural crops.
    6. Agro ecological Zones of Tamil Nadu
      The Tamil Nadu state has been broadly divided into 5 major (AEZ) land forms namely The Nilgiris, South Sahyadri, Tamil Nadu uplands and Tamil Nadu plains (Comprises Northern, southern and Coastal Plains). 17 Agro Ecological Zones were delineated considering landform, rainfall and major soils. Demarcation of soil management units were delineated within the zone and LGP was re validated by research stations of TNAU spread over the state.
    7. Detailed Assessment of Land and Soil Resources of Kuppam Mandal In Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh
      14 soil series were identified and mapped in 14 soil phases as mapping units. Dominant surface texture is sandy loam, followed by sandy clay loam and loamy sand. Most of the soils have gravels ranging from 15 to > 60 per cent. Important thematic maps for LCC, LIC, texture, fertility, pH, suitability for major crops were prepared and user interaction meet was organized. Report was submitted to Dept of Agriculture.
    8. Planning optimum land use based on bio-physical and economic resources in Pulivendula agricultural division – Kadappa district, Andhra Pradesh
      25 soil series were identified and mapped into 43 map units as series and its association in an area of 1.33 lakh ha. 3 crop growing situations were identified. Soil fertility data showed that Nitrogen was low, Phosphorus: low to medium, potassium: predominantly high. The other micronutrients manganese and copper were adequate zinc and Iron was deficient in some pockets. Land suitability maps for 8 major crops such as Groundnut Sorghum, Castor, Bengal gram, Sunflower, Banana and sweet orange were assessed and promising crops were suggested to the region.
    9. Soils, Soil-Scape relationships and their Mapping at 1:50,000 scale in Bellary district, Karnataka
      54 soil series mapped, five series cover 42% of the district’s area account for 85% of the net cultivable area. Based on the potentials and constraints of the region, suitability of crops adaptable to each soil series of the district has been assessed and recommended.
    10. Participatory Technology Development on Land Use Planning and Diversification of farming in a micro-watershed in Eastern Dry zone of Karnataka
      Soil–site suitability for major crops of the region was tested in the field. A multipurpose crop: Velvetbean (Macuna utilis) was proved to be most profitable crop even during severe drought years. Demonstrated the utility of homestead cultivation of Azolla for generating additional income and to provide nutritious supplementary feed to animals. Ecological and economic consequences of sand extraction from agricultural fields was studied and reported. Farmer’s field day was organized.
    11. Land Resource Inventionary for Farm Planning in Chikk-Arsinkere Hobli of Maddur Taluk, Mandya District of Karnataka
      Detailed soil survey was carried out for the Hobli consisting of 42 villages covering an area of 16,873 ha. 13 soil series were identified. Nearly 52 percent of the area is suffering from subsoil salinity/alkalinity. Land suitability for major crops was assessed. User interaction meet was organized.
    12. Land use planning for Tirumale sub-watershed (Motaganhalli watershed) in Magadi taluk, Ramangar district, Karnataka
      Detailed land resources inventory for a model watershed under IWMP (Karnataka Watershed Development Department) was carried out covering an area of 1650ha. Four soil series identified and 20 land management units were delineated. Land suitability for major crops was assessed. Constraints and potentials were analyzed and report was submitted to the watershed department. The report is used in the preparation of Net-plan under IWMP. Action plan based on the report is being implemented by the Karnataka Water Development Department during the Kharif season 2013.
    13. Development of district level land use plan for Mysore district, Karnataka
      Soil map was generalized into 12 land management units. Prime agricultural lands were delineated. Potential crops under Irrigated and rainfed Agricultural Production Systems was Identified. In irrigated system, promising crops along with goat/sheep (few animals) and inland fishery units in salt affected soils are found to be profitable. In rainfed system, crop production along with livestock management is found more promising. Multiple goal linear programming was used as model to develop plans for agricultural development in Mysore district. Developed Decision Support System in Ms-access and prepared prospective land use plan for Mysore district for 2024-25.
    14. Geomorphological Analysis and study on Landform – Soils – Land Use Relationships in Karnataka State
      Pedogeomorphic relationship of Lateritic terrain of Bangalore plateau and Bidar plateau was established using LISS –III Landsat images and field visit. Bhima and kaladigi landscape of sedimentary were assessed for soil variability. Cross sectional analysis done for all the major geomorphic units and brought out the relationship of landform - soils -land use.

    State level Soil Resource Inventories for Southern states

    1. Soil Resource Mapping of Karnataka
      Soil resource mapping of Karnataka (1:250,000 scale) was undertaken, covering 19.1 m.ha. The Alfisols are the dominant soils covering 27 per cent of the total area followed by Inceptisols (25%), Entisols (16%), Vertisols (15%), Ultisols (8%), Aridisols (5%) and Mollisols (1%). About 83 per cent area in the state is suitable for agriculture and 14 per cent for forestry, pasture, agri-horti-silvipastoral system and 3 per cent area is suitable for quarrying, mining, wildlife and recreation. About 18 per cent of the area is highly suitable for growing rice, 36 per cent for sorghum, 19 per cent for ragi, 23 per cent for cotton and 8 per cent area for groundnut.
    2. Soil Resource Mapping of Andhra Pradesh
      Soil resource mapping of Andhra Pradesh (1:250,000 scale) was undertaken covering 27.5 m.ha. Of the total area, nearly 36 per cent is covered by Incetisols, 30 per cent by Alfisols, 11 per cent by Entisols, 8 per cent by Vertisols, 3 per cent by Aridisols and 2 per cent by Mollisols. Suitability evaluation indicated that about 15.6 per cent of the area is highly suitable for growing rice, 13 per cent for sorghum, 7.7 per cent for cotton and 32 per cent area moderately suitable for groundnut.
    3. Soil Resource Mapping of Tamil Nadu
      Soil resource mapping of Tamil Nadu (1:250,000 scale) was undertaken covering 13 m.ha. The Inceptisols are the dominant soils accounting for 50 per cent of the total area followed by Alfisols (30%), Vertisols (7%), Entisols (6%), Ultisols (1%). About 6 per cent of the area is highly suitable for growing rice, 5 per cent for sugarcane, 7 per cent for cotton and 5 per cent for groundnut.
    4. Soil Resource Mapping of Kerala
      Soil resource mapping of Kerala (1:250,000 scale) was undertaken covering 38,855 sq. km. The Ultisols are the dominant soils covering 54 per cent of the total area followed by Inceptisols (30%), Entisols (6%), Alfisols (1%) and Mollisols (1%). Coastal areas, particularly the sandy belt has no choice of crops other than coconut and to lesser extent cashew. For the lateritic area and low and medium hills, rubber is the more ideal crop.
    5. Soil Resource Mapping of Goa
      Soil resource mapping of Goa (1:50,000 scale) was undertaken covering 3702 sq. km. The Inceptisols are the dominant soils covering 74 per cent of the total area followed by Ultisols (14%) and Entisols (5%). Cashew is the major economic cash crop and nearly 24 per cent is moderately suitable for coconut 21 per cent and rice 24 per cent moderately suitable.
    6. Soil Resource Mapping of Puducherry
      Soil resource mapping of Puducherry (1:50,000 scale) was undertaken covering 29,377 ha. The Incetisols are the dominant soils covering 43 per cent of the total area followed by Vertisols (12.8%) wheras in Karaikal region, Entisols are the major soils covering 30.8 per cent followed by Vertisols (26%).
    7. Soil Resource Mapping of Lakshadweep
      Soil resource mapping of Lakshadweep (1:8,000 scale) was undertaken covering 26.32 sq.km. The major soils are sandy soils derived from coral lime stone. Coconut is the main crop.
    8. Agro-ecological Zoning of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
      • Karnataka state has been divided into 6 sub-regions and 17 agro-ecological zones. The LGP varied from < 90 to 270 days.
      • Andhra Pradesh has been divided into 8 sub-regions and 22 agro-ecological zones. LGP in the state varied from < 90-210 days.
      • Kerala state has been divided into 3 sub-regions and 14 AEZ's. The LGP varied from 90 to 300 days.
    9. Software development for soil attributes database management
      The database management system developed using MS-ACCESS. Facilities like input/edit/storage of project-information, soil map unit information, pedon general information, site characteristics, land use information, soil morphological characteristics and laboratory database on physical and chemical characteristics of soils. Querying and reporting facilities are provided in the software.

    Major works and different levels of survey completed

    • District soil surveys:Kolar, Tumkur, Hassan, Mysore, Chitradurga and Bijapur districts of Karnataka; Chittoor and Medak district of Andhra Pradesh.
    • Taluk Soil Surveys:Kuppam, Palamner and Srikalahasti taluks of AP
    • Command areas surveyed:Salauli Project, Goa, Settur and Serangattupatti Integrated rural development Project area of Anna Dist. Tamil Nadu.
    • Research Farms:Coffee Research Station Farm, Balehonnur, Chikkamangalur district, Nagamangala Research farm, Mandya District, Tegur farm of IGFRI, Dharwad district, CTRI Farm-Hunsur, IISR farm at Appangal of Karnataka, Banana Research centre farm, Trichy, TN
    • Watersheds Surveyed: Madanur watershed of Prakasam District ; Gudivada watershed of Vishakapatnam district; Nallakonda watershed, Anathapur district of Andhra Pradesh, Taloulim watershed of North Goa, Gadehotur watershed of Bellary and Koulagi and Nalathwad watersheds (Bijapur), Garakahalli, Liganahalli and Rajankunte, Kuttinagere watersheds (Bangalore district), Molahalli (South Kenara district) and Pettamaranhatti (Chitradurga district).
    • Soil degradation assessment:Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa
    • Agro Ecological Zoning of the States:Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala

    Consultancy Projects

    1. Resource soil survey and mapping of rubber growing soils of Kerala and Tamil Nadu on 1:50,000 scale.
      The consultancy project for Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, was undertaken for generating detailed soil information for assessing the suitability of the existing rubber growing areas and for refining the basis for discriminatory fertilizer recommendation for rubber. The project primarily funded by World Bank had an outlay of Rs.168 lakhs. The work started in 1997 was completed by December 1999. Study encompassed soil survey at the scale of 1:50,000 to map the soils at series association level, characterization of soils for their physical and chemical properties, fertility evaluation, sustainability evaluation and their taxonomic classification. The program covered nearly a million hectares of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The spatial and attribute data on soils of rubber growing areas were processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to generate soil and related thematic maps. Hard copy deliverables submitted to the Rubber Board included detailed report and maps on land and soil qualities.
    2. Detailed land resource inventory of part of Palakkad district for precision agriculture with special reference to rice cultivation
      Detailed soil survey was undertaken in 42 panchayats of Palakkad where rice crop covers more than 25 per cent area. Generated soil map, soil fertility map and reports of the 42 panchayats in detail to provide site-specific farm information. Soil fertility evaluation of each parcel of land in the 42 panchayats was carried out and issued soil fertility cards. Developed panchayat-wise indices of soil fertility and refined fertilizer recommendations for rice. Analysed socio-economic constraints of rice production system in the district and delineated agro-ecological units of Palakkad district.
    3. Agro-economic constraints of oil seed production regions of India
      The study covered four oilseed crops viz. Groundnut, soybean, rapeseed mustard and sesame in 16 districts of the country, selected based on the extent of the oilseed crops. Agro economic constraints encountered in production of these crops in different districts were characterised.
    4. Land Use planning for the management of agricultural resources in a watershed
      Detailed inventorization of the natural resource base was carried out at Liganahalli village using 1:4000 cadastral map. Distinct soil series were identified. Thematic maps for soil series, phases, erosion, texture, pH, slope, drainage were generated using GIS. Soil fertility analysis was carried out and fertility maps were generated using GIS. Soil fertility based fertilizer recommendation is done for the cultivated crops. Based on the soil properties, soil-crop suitability exercise was carried out for the major crops and suitability maps were generated.
    5. Agro-ecological Units of Kerala (Consultancy project)
      Twenty two Agro-ecological Units of Kerala was delineated to depict areas homogenous with respect to climate, landform and soils. District-wise agro-ecological units map and reports prepared for 13 districts of Kerala. User interaction meet was organized and reports submitted.
    6. Perspective Land Use Plans 2015 and 2025 Union Territory of Puducherry
      State Land Use Board (SLUB) of the U.T. of Puducherry desired to prepare a Perspective Land Use Plan for the Union Territory for 2015 and 2025. The data used for this purpose are: the soil map ( 1:50000 scale) Soil morphological, physical, and chemical properties, major and micro nutrient content of the soils, land use and socio- economic data, collected from farmers in a sample survey, Govt of Puducherry. Climatic data collected from India Meteorological Department. These data were analysed and suggested ways to improve the productivity of crops keeping the future needs of the people.

    Inter Institutional Projects

    1. Development of climatic and soil site-suitability criteria for Jatropha curcas in Rainfed regions of India. (CRIDA & NBSS & LUP, Bangalore)
      Soil site suitability criteria Jatropha curcas was developed. This was used to assess 108 targeted districts in 25 states.

    Externally Funded Projects (National)

    1. Land Resource of Kudankulam, Vijayapati and Erukkandurai Villages, Radhapuram Taluk, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu at 1: 12,500 scale
      In collaboration with M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, Detailed Soil Survey and mapping of natural resources and preparation of action plan for development of three villages around the proposed Kudankulam nuclear power project of NPC was taken up. 9364 hectares of area was covered under high intensity detailed soil survey. Soil maps of the three villages were prepared. Based on the data collected on land/soil resources and the socio-economic conditions of the people, suitability of entire arable lands of the villages were evaluated for all possible crops and related enterprises. Thematic maps on land and soil qualities were prepared using GIS. Further developmental work was carried out by MSSRF.
    2. Land Resource Inventory and GIS Database for Farm Planning in Tamil Nadu
      To provide detailed site-specific database suitable for Farm level planning on land resources for all the villages in the state in a phased manner. The database is expected to form the basis and provide all the necessary information required for implementing any land based developmental programmes in the state in future.
    3. Economic land evaluation for sustainable land management of watersheds in different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka.
      The project was undertaken with the objective of increasing the capacity for application of economic principles and tools to environmental management. It was funded by Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai.
    4. Land Resource Survey in Kumaranahalli, Dyapanayakanahalli and Hariyam-manahalli villages in Harapanahalli taluk for Land Use Planning
      It is a collaborative project involving the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Bangalore, Samaja Parivarthan Samudaya, a Non-Governmental Organisation from Davanagere and the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. As per the work plan, the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning has carried out detailed soil and socioeconomic survey of the three villages, prepared soil map, problem and potential area maps, generated suitability thematic maps for various crops and soil and water conservation structures. Based on the database, the UAS, Dharwad and the Samaja Parivarthan Samudaya have prepared the Action Plan and implemented developmental works in the farmer’s field.
    5. Soil Resources Atlas of Andhra Pradesh
      The state of Andhra Pradesh has 22 districts and 1104 mandals. The Mandal is a cluster of villages or Panchayaths. The state Department of Agriculture, Government of Andhra Pradesh has divided the state into 254 agricultural divisions for the purpose of planning and execution of agricultural developmental programmes. Land Resource Information in the form of atlases was planned for all the divisions in the state to organise the spatial and attribute data of soil for Andhra Pradesh in digital form using GIS and to generate agricultural subdivision-wise thematic maps on external land features, soil qualities and interpretative maps, with explanatory notes.
    6. Benchmark Soils of Andhra Pradesh
      The Soil Resource Mapping of the state on 1:250,000 scale identified and mapped 132 soil families out of which 55 benchmark soils were identified based on the extent and Taxonomic importance.
    7. Soil Resource Mapping of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh for Land Use Planning (1:50,000 scale)
      Soil resource inventory of Medak district was carried out at 1:50,000 scale to interpret soil related constraints, to evaluate suitability for different crops and to prepare fertility maps. Forty five soil series were identified and mapped into 61 units as association of soil series. Red soils covers maximum area (41%) followed by black cotton soils (20%), red laterite soils (5%) and alluvial lowland soils about (18%). About 90% of area in the district is suitable for agriculture and 10% area for forestry, agroforestry, agri-horti-silvi-pasture, recreation and habitat for wild life. The most productive lands are concentrated in Andole (56% of the total division), Sadasivpet (54%), Sangareddy (48%), Dubbak (39%), Gajwel (36%), Medak(34%), Ramayampet(33%), Shankarampet(32%), and Narsapur(31%). The marginal/ problem soils are concentrated in Narayankhed(46%), Zaheerabad(12%), and Medak (10%) divisions.

      The soil fertility assessment showed 46% of area is low in available N, 85% is low in available phosphorus and 43% is low in available Potassium.
    8. Generation of mandal soil maps (1:50,000) for Medak district, Andhra Pradesh
      In Andhra Pradesh, mandal is the basic Administrative Unit where Agricultural Officer will be working and implementing different developmental programmes and rendering farm advisory services to farmers. Realising the need for soil resource information at Mandal level, State Department of Agriculture has approached the Regional Centre of NBSS & LUP for generation of mandal-wise soil maps with comprehensive legend for 20 themes were prepared and handed over to the Department.
    9. Soil resource mapping of Bellary (1:50,000)
      Soil resource mapping of Bellary district is completed. 37 soil series have been identified and mapped. Information for different themes was generated.
    10. Desertification status mapping in Bellary district, Karnataka
      As a part of the Desertification Status Mapping, sponsored by the Space Application Centre, Ahmadabad, work was initiated in Bellary district in 2002 -2003 to assess the type, extent and severity of different forms of degradation. In the first phase, IRS IC/ID- LISS-3 Images were interpreted for the study area and various degradation forms were identified. Desertification atlas was submitted to Space Application Centre, Ahmadabad.
    11. Economic land evaluation for sustainable land management of Rajanukunte Watershed, Karnataka
      Study carried out at Rajankunte watershed between 1980 and 2002 indicated that the total cultivable land area reduced at the rate of 4.1 ha annually. Reduction in area under food crops, agro forestry and grazing lands has been diverted to horticulture. Nitrogen and phosphorus usage in the watershed increased by 67 and 32 per cent over 22 years and in general nutrient usage increased by 35 per cent. Change in land use and nutrient use pattern resulted in increase in area under acid soils, decline in base saturation and soil organic carbon (SOC) in the 0-20 cm layer at a faster rate. Change in land use and management greatly affects the soil quality and require immediate correction measures like lime application and soil and water conservation measures including proper crop rotations to arrest the further degradation. The total cost of correcting soil acidity using lime worked out to be of Rs 218802 for the entire watershed and an average cost of Rs 761/ha for improving soil quality in Rajanukunte Watershed.
    12. Integrated National Agricultural Resource Information System (IANARIS): Subproject – Soil Resource Data Base.
      INARIS project is major initiative of the ICAR for creation of digital data bases of the agricultural resources of the nation. The Bureau played a major role in the project being in possession of various spatial data sets on land and soils. The Bangalore Regional Centre is entrusted with the responsibility of creation of digital data sets on land and soil qualities of south Indian states. The digital data sets on soils are at 1:1 million scale were generated and maintaining digital form at this centre.

    Externally Funded Projects (Foreign)

    1. Soil Carbon pool and biodiversity conservation (Sponsored by FIP, Pondicherry, CIRAD, Montpellier, INRA, France)
      The SOC stocks were calculated for forest and plantation areas for different periods. The SOC stock measured in forest plots (181 TC/ha and 250 TC/ha) are significantly higher than those of plantation areas estimated with MART model built during the first phase (63 TC/ha) and the conversion of forest into coffee plantation is followed by a loss of SOC. Similar trend of SOC stock was recorded for forest to annual crop production system and rubber plantations. It was evident that SOC stocks measured under plantations are quite lower than those measured under evergreen forest stands in their vicinity: loss of 20-70 T/ha for coffee, 10-25 T/ha for rubber.
    Ongoing Projects

    Externally Funded

    1. Tribal Sub-Plan Activities (Sponsored by ICAR)
    2. Soil based plant nutrient management plan for agro-ecosystems of Kerala (Sponsored by Kerala State Soil Survey Organization)
    3. Delineation of potential areas for commercially important medicinal and aromatic plants in different Agro-ecological zones of Karnataka using GIS tools (Sponsored by DST)
    4. Soil fertility and soil health Monitoring in Traditional rubber growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka (Sponsored by RRII, Kottayam, Kerala)
    5. Modelling impact of climate change on soil quality and land use in arid , semi arid and sub-humid regions of Karnataka for Agricultural sustainability(Sponsored by CSIR)

    Institute Projects

    1. Geomorphological Analysis and study on Landform – Soils – Land Use Relationships in Karnataka State (on-going)
    2. Soil series correlation of southern states (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and Lakshadweep)
    Capacity Building

    Post Graduate Teaching and Education

    Regional Centre scientists are offering PG courses and guiding the research work and providing laboratory facilities to PG students of UAS, Bangalore.

    Training Imparted

    The centre has taken up programmes on Human Resource Development through conducting regular training to state and other line departments of southern states as and when requested by the respective state government. The faculty members of the Institute are well experienced and are also trained in different specialized subjects both in India and abroad. The Centre has now excellent infrastructural facilities with Training Hostel that has a capacity of catering the need of 24 trainees. The centre also has very good audio-visual facilities and training materials as teaching aid.

    Regular training programs are conducted by the centre in following broad subject areas

    • Soil resource inventory and land evaluation
    • Geographic Information System (GIS) for land resource data management
    • Land evaluation for command area development

    Apart from regular training programmes, Regional centre is conducting sponsored training programmes and winter/summer schools on

    • Recent techniques in planning and management of land resources
    • Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Natural Resource Management
    • Land resource variability and its appraisal for precision farming
    • Student internship programme for PG students of Agriculture, Engineering and Geo-informatics
    Linkages

    Regional Centre has close coordination with ICAR institutes, State Agricultural Universities, State Govt. agencies and NGO’s in the region for soil correlation, identification of benchmark soils and crop productivity assessment under different environment.

    Future Thrust Areas
    • Soil survey and mapping of the soils of Southern states
    • To prepare perspective (at state and district level) and participatory (at village/micro watershed level) land use planning
    • To conduct and promote research in areas of pedology, soil survey, land evaluation and land use planning.
    • Soil correlation, classification and characterization of benchmark soils at soil series level in liaison with state soil survey organizations.
    • Education and research activities in collaboration with University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in awarding M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees.
    • Consultancy services in the fields of Bureau’s specialization and expertise
    Major Publications (Research papers/Reports/Technical Bulletins)

    Research Papers

    1. Maske, S.P, Anil kumar, K.S., Rajendra Hegde, Ramesh Kumar, S.C, Srinivas .S and Naidu, L.G.K. (2012). Rainfall probability analysis for crop planning –a case study of Kuttanagere micro-watershed. Mysore Journal of Agric. Sci. 46(3) 683-686.
    2. Ramamurthy, V., Naidu, L.G.K., Srinivas, S. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sarkar, Dipak (2012). Delineation of potential areas for safflower production in Deccan Plateau. J. Oilseeds Res., 29: 226-233.
    3. Nair K.M. Anil kumar K.S., Krishnan, P, Naidu L.G.K., and Dipak Sarkar, 2011. Variability of Lateritic soil development in humid tropical environment. Clay Research 30(2):12-21.
    4. Anil Kumar, K.S. Nair, K.M. and. Gaddi, A.V. (2011). Characterization of soils of Talaulim watershed, North Goa and their suitability for cashew production, J. Plant. Crops 39: 363-369.
    5. Naidu, L.G.K., Ramamurthy,V., G.S.Sidhu and Sarkar, Dipak (2011). Emergency deficiency of potassium in soils and crops of India. Karnataka J. Agric.Sci., 24: 12-19.
    6. Niranjana, K.V., Ramamurthy, V., Hegde, Rajendra, Srinivas, S., Koyal, Arti, Naidu, L.G.K. and Sarkar, Dipak (2011). Characterization, Classification and Suitability Evaluation of Banana Growing Soils of Pulivendla Region, Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. 59:1-5.
    7. Srinivasan, R., Natarajan, A., Anil Kumar, K.S. and. Kalaivanan, D. (2011). Land suitability evaluation of soils of Dakshin Kannada district of Karnataka for cashew production, J. Plant. Crops 39:325-329.
    8. Anil Kumar, K.S. Rajendra Hegde and Ramesh Kumar, S.C. (2010). Characterization of soils of a micro-watershed in Eastern dry zone of Karnataka, Agropedology 20: 182-188.
    9. Anil Kumar, K.S., Krishnan, P., Natarajan, A. and Nair, K.M. (2010). Land and soil attributes and their evaluation for coffee-growing in Karnataka, Mysore J. Agric. Sci. 44: 793-802.
    10. Dhanorkar, B.A., Niranjana, K.V., Arti Koyal, Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., and Sarkar, Dipak (2010). Soil Resources Inventory of Lateritic Terrain of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh for sustainable crop planning. Agropedology 20, 97-102.
    11. Naidu, L.G.K., Ramamurthy, V and Ramesh Kumar, S.C. (2010). Potassium deficiency in soil and crops. Indian J. Fertilizers, 6(5): 32-38.
    12. Natarajan, A., Hegde, Rajendra, Naidu, L.G.K., Raizada, A., Adhikari, R.N., Patil, S.L., Rajan, K. and Sarkar, Dipak (2010). Soil and plant nutrient loss during the recent floods in North Karnataka: Implications and ameliorative measures. Current Science. 99(10):1333-1340.
    13. Rajan, K., Natarajan, A., Anil Kumar, K.S., Badrinath, M.S. and Gowda, R.C. (2010). Soil organic carbon-the most reliable indicator for monitoring land degradation by soil erosion, Current Science, 99(6):823-827.
    14. Shalima Devi, G.M. and Anil Kumar, K.S. (2010). Characterisation and classification of coffee-growing soils of Karnataka. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 58 (1):125-132.
    15. Anil Kumar, K.S. and Shalima Devi, G.M. (2009). Soil organic carbon stocks as a land quality indicator under the coffee land use system in Karnataka. J. Coffee Res. 37(1 & 2) :43-65.
    16. Kashiwar, D.Y., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Rajiv Srivastava, Jagdish Prasad, Ramamurthy, V. and Barthwal, A.K. (2009). Characterization, evaluation and management of Salai watershed in Nagpur district of Maharashtra using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Agropedology 19(1):15-23.
    17. Martin, M.P., Lo Seen, D., Boulonne, L., Jolivet, C., Nair, K.M., Bourgeon, G. and Arrouays, D. (2009). Optimizing pedo-transfer functions for estimating soil bulk density using boosted regressing trees. Soil Sci Soc. Am. J. 73(2):485-493.
    18. Naidu, L.G.K., Srinivas, S., Nair, K.M. and Krishnan, P. (2009). Delineation of Agro-ecological and Efficient Cropping Zones in Kerala. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 57 (1): 85-89.
    19. Naidu, L.G.K., Srinivas, S., Subbi Reddy,G., Ramesh Kumar, S.C. and Reddy, R.S. (2009). Identification and delineation of suitable areas for mange, banana, citrus and cashew crops in Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 19(1): 30-40.
    20. Naidu, L.G.K., Srinivas,S. and Ramesh Kumar, S.C. (2009). Characterizing soil and climatic constraints for sustainable forest development in Karnataka using remote sensing and geographic information system. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 57 (2):101-108.
    21. Niranjana K.V., Chandrakantha G., Srinivas S., Ankegowda K.G. and Basavaraju N.G. (2009). Natural Resource Inventory of Itagi Sub-watershed Using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 43(1).
    22. Niranjana, K.V., Vadivelu, S., D’Souza, Maria Violet, Nagaraj, J.S., Koyal, Arti and Ramesh, M. (2009). Soils of coffee growing areas of Western Ghats in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka. J. Coffee Res. 37(1 & 2):1-9.
    23. Ramamurthy, V and Venugopalan, M.V. (2009). Performance of Bt. cotton in Shrink-swell soils of Central India. Indian J. Agril. Sci., 79(12):1026-1029.
    24. Ramamurthy, V., Patil, N.G., Venugopalan, M.V. and Challa, O. (2009). Effect of drip irrigation on productivity and water use efficiency of hybrid cotton in Typic Haplusterts. Indian Journal Agricultural Sciences, 79(1):118-121.
    25. Ramamurthy.V, Naidu, L.G.K., Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Srinivas, S. and Rajendra Hegde. (2009). Soil based fertilizer recommendations for precision farming. Current Science. 97 (5):641-647.
    26. Shalima Devi, G.M. and Anil Kumar, K.S. (2009). Characteristics of coffee-growing soils and their organic carbon stocks in Karnataka state. Agropedology 19(1):6-14.
    27. Shalini Devi, G.M. and Anil kumar, K.S. (2008). Land quality Assessment of Coffee-growing areas of Karnataka Mysore J.Agric, Sci 4(3) 416-420.
    28. Hegde, Rajendra, Anilkumar K.S., Ramesh Kumar S.C., Devaraju, M. and Rudregouda (2008). Characteristics & Classification of Soils of Amani Shivpurkere Watershed (Linganahalli village) Doddaballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural District. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 21(3): 373-378
    29. Hegde, Rajendra, Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Anil Kumar, K.S. and Ramamurthy, V. (2008). Soil site suitability and economics of cultivation of Davana (Artemesia pallens). Karnataka Journal of Agril. Sciences. 21(4)565-567.
    30. Hegde, Rajendra, Rameshkumar S.C., Anilkumar, K.S, Srinivas, S. and Ramamurthy, V. (2008). Sand extraction from agricultural fields around Bangalore: ecological disaster or an economic boon. Current Science 95(2): 243-248.
    31. Naidu L.G.K., Ramamurthy, V., Ramesh Kumar S.C., Sidhu, G.S. and Raj Kumar (2008). Soil based fertilizer recommendation – A Rational approach. Indian Journal of Fertilizer, 4(7):47-56.
    32. Niranjana K.V., Chandrakantha G., Srinivas S., Basavaraju N.G. and Ankegowda K.G (2008). Alternate Land Use Planning of Chennammanagathihalli Sub-watershed Using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 42(2): 283-292.
    33. Ramesh Kumar S.C., Vadivelu S., Rajendra Hegde & Munireddy M. (2008). Enhancing agro-bio diversity through watershed development program in Karnataka. MyForest. 43(3)381-385.
    34. Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Vadivelu, S., Ramamurthy, V., Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Srinivas, S. and Maji, A.K. (2008). Monitoring soil quality changes in relation to land use and management in a watershed, Karnataka. Agropedology, 18 (1); 50-57.
    35. Shalima Devi, G.M. and Anil Kumar, K.S. (2008). Remote sensing and GIS application for Land Quality Assessment for Coffee-growing areas of Karnataka. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 36(1):88-97.
    36. Krishnan, P., Bourgeon, G., Seen, D. Lo, Nair, K. M., Prasanna, R., Srinivas, S., Muthusankar, G., Dufy, L., and Ramesh, B. R. (2007) Organic carbon stock map for soils of southern India: A multifactorial approach. Current Science, 93(5), 10 September 2007.
    37. Naidu, L.G.K. and Vadivelu, S. (2007). Secondary and micronutrient status of soils under fruit crops. Karnataka Indian Journal of Fertilizers, 2(12):45-48.
    38. Naidu, L.G.K., Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Dhanorkar, B.A., Bhoora Prasad, Shiva Prasad, C.R., Budihal, S.L., Srinivas, S., Arati Koyal, Reddy, R.S., Harindranath, C.S. and Krishnan, P. (2007). Fertilizer Misapplication and Economic Assessment of Fertility Degradation - A case study in Nalathwad Water Shed, Karnataka. Indian J. Agric. Res., 41 (2):117-121.
    39. Ramesh Kumar S.C., Vadivelu S., Ramamurthy V, Naidu L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Srinivas. S. and Maji A.K. (2007). Monitoring soil quality changes in relation to land use and management in a watershed, Karnataka. Agropedology 18 (1):50-57.
    40. Devaraja, M.and Hegde, Rajendra (2006).Yield attributes of malt barley as influenced by nitrogen, phosphorus potassium and their correlation and regression with yield. Agric. Sci Digest, 26(1):48-50.
    41. Hegde, Rajendra, Devaraja, M. and Gumaste, Subhash (2006): Effect of stage of harvesting of seed crop, nitrogen and phosphorous levels on the forage yield and ratoonability of forage pearlmillet. Indian J. Agric Res. 40(3):232-234.
    42. Naidu, L.G.K. and Srinivas, S. (2006). Need for refinement or revalidation of agro-technologies in NARP Zones - A case study of Karnataka., Agropedology 16 (1): 42-49.
    43. Naidu, L.G.K., Srinivas, S., Hegde, Rajendra and Devaraja, M. (2006). Assessment of length of growing period (LGP) in agroclimatic zones of Karnataka for crop planning. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 40(4):522-533.
    44. Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Vadivelu, S., Reddy, R.S., Naidu, L.G.K., Hegde Rajendra and Srinivas, S. (2006). Land suitability for grape cultivation and its economic evaluation in Rajankunte watershed, Karnataka. Agropedology 16(2) 98-104.
    45. Ramesh Kumar,S.C. and Padmavati, M. (2006). Methodology for characterization of farm level sustainable land management indicators: A Case study of Nalatwad watershed in Karnataka. Agricultural Economics Research Review, Vol 19 (2)
    46. Reddy. R.S. (2006) Methodology for Correlation of soil series in soil survey and mapping, Agropedology 16(1).
    47. Hegde, Rajendra, Devaraja, M. and Gumaste, Subash (2005). Effect of Stages of Harvesting and Levels of N and P on the Forage Yield and Quality of Ratoon Pearl millet. Karnataka J. of Agril. Sci.
    48. Hegde, Rajendra, Devaraja, M. and Gumaste, Subhash (2005). Harvesting stages, N and P levels on forage yield and quality of ratoon pearl millet. Karnataka J.Agric. Sci.,18(3):794-797.
    49. Hegde, Rajendra, Devaraja, M. and Rudragouda (2005). Performance of few rainfed crops in different soil series in Amani shivapurakere watershed during severe drought years. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 18(4)911-915.
    50. Naidu, L.G.K. (2005). Length of growing period as a criteria for identifying different drought types in Karnataka. Indian J. Agril. Sci. 94-95.
    51. Krishnan, P., Nair, K.M., Naidu, L.G.K., Sreenivas, S., Arti Koyal, Nasre, R.A., Ramesh, M & K.S. Gajbhiye, (2004) Land, soil and land use of Lakshadweep Coral Islands, J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 226-232.Naidu
    52. Naidu, L.G.K., Redddy, R.S., Budihal, S.L. & Srinivas, S. (2004). Need for soil based fertilizer recommendations as a precision approach than blanket zonal recommendation – A case study of Paddy growing Soils of Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 14(2).
    53. Naidu, L.G.K. and Hunsigi, G. (2003). Sugarcane yield gap analysis production trends and fertilizer use by farmer’s in major sugarcane growing agro-climatic zones of Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 16 (1): 4-12.
    54. Subbi Reddy G, Naidu L.G.K., Anjaneyalu, .K, (2003). Influence of soil nutrient mining on growth, yield and nutritional disorders in sweet orange orchards. Indian Journal of Citriculture. 2 (1): 10-13.
    55. Naidu, L.G.K. (2002). Characterisation of sugarcane soils of Karnataka, Agropedology, 157-163
    56. Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Niranjane, K.V., Srinivas, S., Dhanorkar, B.A., Nasre, R.A. and Koyal, Arti (2002). Fertility status and trends in fertilizer use in major soils of Andhra Pradesh. Fertilizer News, 47 (10): 25-28 and 31-35
    57. Reddy, R.S., Naidu, L.G.K., Srinivas, S., Niranjane, K.V., Ramesh, M., Hrindranath, C.S., Shivaprasad, C.R. and Thayalan, S. (2001). Identification and categorization of agricultural drought prone zones of Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology, 101-109.
    58. Bhaskar, B.P., Nagaraju, M.S., Ravindra Chary, G., Reddy, R.S., Raghu Mohan, N.G. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2000). Evaluation of production efficiency of cotton zone for rational land use in Adilabad district, A. P. Agropedology:10(1).
    59. Dutta, D., Saha, K.D., Reddy, R.S., Anil Kumar, K.S. and Arati Koyal (2000) Soil Organic carbon storage in different land forms of South Deccan Plateau of Andhra Pradesh. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48(3): 447-450.
    60. Krishnan, P., Venugopal K.R. and Nair, K.M. (2000). Morphology, characteristics and classification of low activity clay soils of Kerala, J. Indian Soc. of Soil Sci., 48:819.
    61. Reddy, R.S. (2000). Methodlogy for establishment of the modal profile and defining Range in characteristics of soil series. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48(3) 552-560.
    62. Bourgeon, G., Salvador Blanes, S., Houllier, F., Harindranath, C.S. and Shivaprasad, C.R. (1999). Mapping soil organic carbon in south India, the example of Shimoga district in Karnataka, Bioset Forests Des. Tropiques, N' 262(4).
    63. Challa, O., Reddy, R.S. and Shivaprasad C.R. (1999). Assessment of quality of growing period in arid and semiarid ecosystem for crop production. Agropedology, 9, 63-70.
    64. Dipak Dutta, Sah, K.D., Dipak Sarkar and Reddy R.S. (1999). Quantitative evaluation of soil development in some Alfisols of Andhra Pradesh., J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 47(2), 311-315.
    65. Naidu, L.G.K. Hunsigi, G. and Raghu Mohan, N.G. (1999). Soil based fertilizer recommendations to Sugarcane: A rational approach, Fert. News, 44 (8): 29-36.
    66. Reddy, R.S. and Shviaprasad, C.R. (1999). Characterisation and evaluation of potential growing soils of Karnataka, J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 47(3):525-532.
    67. Bhaskar, B.P. and Nagaraju, M.S.S. (1998). Characterization of some salt affected soils occurring in the Chitravathi river basin of Andhra Pradesh, J. Indian Soc. Soil Science 46 (2):293-295.
    68. Bhaskar, B.P. Challa, O. and Reddy R.S. (1998). Special variations in Determinates of Agricultural efficiency in Andhra Pradesh, Geographical review of India, 59 (1):1.
    69. Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Sah, K.D., Ray, S.K., Bhaskar, B.P., Datta, D., Dhanorkar, B.A., Niranjana, K.V., Srinivas, S. and Nagaraju, M.S.S. (1998). Mapping of Agro ecological zones of Andhra Pradesh through Soil Resource Data. Indian Journal of Agril. Sciences. 10:234-237.
    70. Niranjana, K.V., Harindranath, C.S. and Venugopal, K.R. (1998). Evidences of sea regression in Tiswadi Tehsil of North Goa, J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 46(2):336-337.
    71. Reddy, R.S. Shivaprasad, C.R., Harindranath, C.S. Venugopal, K.R., Roy, S.K., Nagaraju, M.S., Datta, D., Bhaskar, B.P., Sah, K.D., Ramesh, V., Niranjana, K.V., Dhanorkar, B.A., Srinivas, S. and Ramesh, M. (1998). J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 46: 165-344.
    72. Shivaramu, H.S., Yadav, S.C,. Gaikawad, S.T., Thote, S.G. and Srinivas, S.(1998).Land Use Requirements of wheat on different well-shrink soils. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 46(2):263-271.
    73. Shivaramu, H.S., Yadav, S.C., Chary, G.R., Kandpal, B.K., Gaikawad, S.T. and Thote, S.G. (1998). Soil requirements of vertisols for soybean at varied management, J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 46 (1): 90-99.
    74. Yadav, S.C., Shivaramu, H.S., Chary, G.R., Kandpal, B.K. and Gaikawad, S.T. (1998). Soil-site suitability evaluation for Rained Cotton on Swell Shrink Soils. J. Indian Soc. Cotton Improve., March 1998. 78-88.
    75. Chary, G.R., Yadav, S.C., Shivaramu, H.S. and Jagdish Prasad, 1997. Indian mustard: a promising sequence crop after soybean in deep black soils around Nagpur. Indian Farming, 46 (10): 31-33.
    76. Naidu, L.G.K., P. Krishnan, K.M. Nair and K.R. Venugopal (1997). Land suitability Evaluation of Coconut growing soils of India. Ind. J. Agri. Sci. 1997, 67 (2) 58-62.
    77. Ray, S.K., Reddy, R.S. and Budihal, S.L. (1997). Vertisols and associated Soils development and lithological discontinuity in coastal Godavari delta region, Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Argil. Res. 15:1-14.
    78. Yadav, S.C. and Shivaramu, H.S. (1997). Influence of soil properties on growth and yield of groundnut in swell-shrink soils, J. Oilseeds Res. 14 (2): 307-311.
    79. Yadav, S.C., Shivaramu, H.S., Chary, G.R. and Jagdish Prasad (1997). Land evaluation for watershed based double cropping systems around Nagpur; Indian J. Agron. 42 (3): 436-442.
    80. Naidu, L.G.K. , C.R. Shivaprasad, C.S. Harindranath, S. Srinivas and N.G. Raghu Mohan (1996). Resource Appraisal of Chitradurga District for Developmental planning. Agricultural situation in India. July 1996 233-36.
    81. Naidu, L.G.K., R.S. Reddy, E.V.S. Prakash Rao, P. Krishnan and R.A. Nasre, (1996). Potassium Deficiency in Crops-An Emerging Problem in Red and Laterite Soils. J. Potassium Res. 12 (1): 22-20.
    82. Nair, K.M., C.R. Shivaprasad, S.R. Naga Bhushana, S. Srinivas, M. Ramesh, N.G. Raghu Mohan and Sehgal, J. (1996). Soil Information for District Level Planning. Fertilizer News. Vol. 41 (10): pp 21-28, October 1996.
    83. Shivaramu, H.S.., Yadav, S.C. and Banker, N.V., (1996). Impact of Swell-Shrink Soils and Integrated Input Management on Productivity of Pigeon pea. J. Maharashtra Agril. Univ. 21(1):1-5.
    84. Naidu, L.G.K., Edward Raja. Thayalan, S. and Krishnan, P. (1994). Intercrop induced Potassium and Zinc deficiency in Mango. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 64 (1): 35-37.
    85. Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Edward Raja., Shivaprasad, C.R., and Krishnan. P. (1994). Characterisation of mango growing soils and soil related contraints for mango production in Southern Karnataka. Indian Journal of Agric. Sciences, 64 (6):354 363.
    86. Basavaraj.B and Sarma V.A.K. (1993) Iron bearing clay mineralogy of selected soils of Peninsular India.
    87. Challa, O. Deshmukh, S.N., Nair, K.M. and Prasad, J. (1993). Red and lateritic soils in part of Western Maharastra, their characteristics, classification and management.
    88. Krishnan.P. (1993). Physico chemical properties and classification of some red and lateritic soils of Southern India.
    89. Naidu, L.G.K., Sidhu, G.S., Rana, K.P.C. and Sachdev, C.B. (1993). Effect of irigation water quality of the yield of pearl millet. Indian Journal of Agronomy 38 (2): 306 8.
    90. Reddy, R.S. and Hilwig, F.W. (1993). Colour additive viewing techniques for small scale soil mapping in an area of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Intern. Journ. Remote Sensing, 14(9):34-36.
    91. Venugopal, K.R. (1993). Biological activities in a Mineral Soil observed through thin section studies. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 41(3):601 602.
    92. Venugopal, K.R. (1993). Soil Micromorphology, Soil Science Club News letter, UAS, Bangalore.
    93. Hari Eswaran, Krishnan.P, Reddy, R.S., Reddy, P.S.A., and Sarma, V.A.K. (1992) Application of the Kandi concept to soils of India. J.Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 40:137 142.
    94. Venugopal, K.R. (1992). Study of coarse fraction in ground mass of a Ferrugenous soils for assessing the parent material & nature of Soil formation. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 40(4):885 888.
    95. Venugopal, K.R., Deshpande, S.B. and Kalbande, A.R. (1992). Micromorphology of Lithmarged Clay in Bramhapuri, Maharashtra J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 41, 1 116 119.
    96. Shivaprasad,C.R., Reddy, R.S., Prabhakara and Reddy, P.S.A. (1991). Productivity and Potentiality of soils of Kolar dis¬trict of Agriculture, Mysore J.Agri. Sci. 25:322-330.
    97. Venugopal, K.R., Deshpande, S.B., Kalbande, S.B. and Sehgal, J.L., (1991). Textural pedofeatures (Clay coatings) in a ferruginous soils from Bangalore plateau. Clay Research 10: 30 35.
    98. Reddy,R.S., Thayalan,S. Shivaprasad.C.R., Reddy, P.S.A. and Sehgal, J.L., (1990). Utility of satellite data for Land Evalu¬ation in land use Planning for part of Northern Karnataka. J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 18:4.
    99. Sehgal, J.L. Harindranath, C.S. and Saxena,R.K. (1990). Soil resource mapping and application of soil maps for agricultural development. Journal of Soil Conservation Research, New Delhi.
    100. Shivaprasad, C.R., Thayalan.S., Reddy, R.S. and Reddy, P.S.A. (1990). Use of Landsat imagery for mapping soil and land re¬sources for development planning in parts of Northern Karnataka, India. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 11,10: 1889 90.
    101. Shivaprasad,C.R. Reddy.R.S. Thayalan.S. (1990). Soils and their suitability for growing rice: A study of Vellore Taluk, Tamil Nadu. Ind. Geogr.J. 65:2.
    102. Shivaprasad, C.R., Reddy, R.S., Srinivasan T.R. and Prabhakara (1988). Mapping of Wastelands of Kolar District Using False Colour Composites of Thematic mapper (TM) Data. Photonirvachak, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing No.4:37-42.
    103. Naga Bhushana, S.R. and Reddy, R.S. (1987). Land and land use planning in agricultural development, J. Agri. Technology, 5, 1 & 2.
    104. Venugopal K.R., (1986). Weathering characterization in a Ferruginous Soil, a micro morphological study. Clay Research, Vol.5, No.2, 88 92.
    105. Reddy, R.S. (1985). Visual Interpretation of Black & White Enlargement of Landsat Imagery for preparation of small scale soil map of a part of Karimnagar district. A.P. Photonirvachak 15(2):23 32.
    106. Reddy, S., Goosen, D. and Elbersen, G.W.W. (1985) A methodology for semi detailed soil surveys using medium scale aerial photographs. J.Ind. Soc. Photo Int. & Remote Sensing, 13:2.
    107. Shivaprasad, C.R., Harindranath, C.S. and Subramanyam, S. (1985). Multistage Approach in Soil Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques, Photonirvachak, Journal. Ind. Soc. Photo Interpretation & Remote Sensing Vol. 13 No.1: 2 40.

    Bulletins/Technical Reports/Soil Survey Reports/Resource Atlases

    1. Nair, K.M., Anil Kumar, K.S., Naidu, L.G.K., Dipak Sarkar and Rajasekharan, P. (2012). Agro-ecology of Thiruvanathapuram District, Kerala. NBSS Publ. No. 1038, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India, 145 p
    2. Nair, K.M., Anil Kumar, K.S., Naidu, L.G.K., Dipak Sarkar and Rajasekharan, P. (2012). Agro-ecology of Kollam District, Kerala. NBSS Publ. No. 1038, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India, 146 p
    3. Nair, K.M., Anil Kumar, K.S., Naidu, L.G.K., Dipak Sarkar and Rajasekharan, P. (2012). Agro-ecology of Pathanamthitta District, Kerala. NBSS Publ. No. 1038, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India, 132 p
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