kolkata

    About the center

    Regional Centre, Kolkata is one among the five regional centers of NBSS&LUP responsible for conducting soil survey and resource mapping of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The center is a self contained unit engaged in satisfactory execution of several soil survey and mapping related projects at various levels together with soil correlation and classification, pedological research, remote sensing and GIS application for land management practices, assessment of soil degradation.



     

    Mandate

    Helps in developing sustainable land use plan for today and tomorrow in the Eastern Region of India. Soil survey and mapping of the soils of eastern states viz., West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and Andaman & Nicobar Islands at watershed, tehsil/Mandal, district, state and regional level to promote scientific land use programmes in collaboration with state soil survey and land use organization, state agricultural universities and other user agencies.

    • To prepare perspective (at state and district level) and participatory (at village/micro watershed level) land use planning by integrating land evaluation, socio-economic data base through close linkages with State Land Use Boards and departments, Commodity Boards, Forest Departments, etc.
    • To conduct and promote research in areas of pedology, soil survey, land evaluation and land use planning.
    • Soil correlation, classification and characterization of benchmark soils at soil series level in liaison with state soil survey organizations.
    • Teaching and research activities in collaboration with University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in awarding M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees.
    • Consultancy services in the fields of Bureau’s specialization and expertise
    List of Scientist
    Name Designation Discipline E-mail  
    Dr. D.C. Nayak Pr.Scientist & Head Soil Science dulalnayak@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. A.K. Sahoo Principal Scientist Soil Science sahooak2007@rediffmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. S.K. Gangopadhyay Principal Scientist Soil Science samarganguly@ymail.com View Biodata
    Dr. Krishnendu Das Principal Scientist Soil Science das_krishnendu@hotmail.com View Biodata
    Dr Dipak Dutta Principal Scientist Soil Science dipakkalyani@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr B.N. Ghosh Principal Scientist Soil Science bnghosh62@rediffmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. K.D. Sah Principal Scientist Soil Science kapildsah@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. S. Mukhopadhyay Principal Scientist Soil Science subratajee@hotmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. T. Chattopadhyay Senior Scientist Soil Science taritchattopadhyay@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. S. K. Reza Scientist Soil Science reza_ssac@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. S. Bandyopadhyay Scientist Soil Science siladitya_555@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr.(Ms) S. Gupta Choudhury Scientist Soil Science shreyasi.acss@gmail.com View Biodata
    Infrastructure
    1. Excellent facility for ground truthing
      The center is continuously monitoring the soil resources of the eastern region with ten to twelve field parties consisting of a scientist, technical, field assistant and driver. Parties are well equipped with modern tools and techniques of remote sensing and GPS to capture the temporal variations in soil resources on account of land use policy and management.
    2. Well equipped physical and chemical Laboratory
      The chemical laboratory of the centre is well equipped with the modern instruments like atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer), C and N analyzer, flame photometer, visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter, Kjeldhal distillation apparatus, digestion chamber and other related instruments for analysis of chemical properties and nutrient status of the soils.The physical laboratory also has the sophisticated instruments namely pressure plate apparatus, suction apparatus, oven, apparatus for mechanical analysis, centrifuges, shakers etc. for the analysis of various physical properties of the soils.
    3. Cartography
      The section is equipped with huge number of topographical sheets, aerial photographs, satellite images, miscellaneous maps and diagrams, soil maps and atlases on various scales. Facilities for conventional drawing such as N.C. Scriber for lettering, drafting machine for drawing, optical pantograph for reduction and enlargement, planimeter and curvimeter for area processing, plan printer for plain paper reproduction and ammonia printing machine, nova trace etc. are available for cartographic work. Remote sensing equipments, such as mirror stereoscope, sketch master, parallel bar, stereo pentameter etc. are also used in the centre for visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images for the preparation of base maps. In addition, lamination and binding machines are also available to strengthen the cartography section.
    4. GIS Laboratory
      The Regional Centre is well equipped with some of the latest computer systems and soft wares that help in data base management, data processing, analysis, storage and retrieval. Advanced software on Geographic Information System such as Arc GIS 9.3, TNT mips, Geomatica and Geomedia Professional are being used for regular soil and other database creation, soil and associated maps preparation and data mining. The laboratory is also equipped with Digital Image Processing Software (Image Analyst), Digital Elevation Model generating software (Terrain Analyst) and CAD software like Bentlay's Microstation (Fig.)
    5. Soil Resource Information Centre (SRIC)
      The Soil Resource Information Centre (SRIC) for Eastern Region pertaining to the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim and Union Territory of A & N Islands have been established at the Regional Centre, Kolkata of NBSS & LUP for the use of planners, research workers, user agencies as well as the students of school, college and university. The major objective was to prepare a brief record of the dominant soils occurring in the eastern region in the form of displaying macro monolith of the soils of various agro-ecosystem with their detailed properties and also to serve as a centre for documentation about the activities of the Regional Centre including human resource development programme pertaining to soil survey for land evaluation, generation of thematic maps using GIS technology and soil based agro-technology transfer towards rational land use plan. Typical soil profile monoliths, sketch of representative landforms, soil-physiographic relationship, a sketch of different soil forming process in the region is shown here as an example.
    6. Library
      A well-stocked documentation unit is prevailing in the Regional Centre. A comprehensive collection of books, journals, reports are present in the library. This caters to the need of the Scientists, Post Graduate students and other technical staff of the institute.
    Achievement (Project completed with very brief note)

    Institute Projects

    • Soil resource mapping of Eastern region for planning at state level (1:250,000 scale)
      The soils of the region was surveyed and mapped on 1:250,000 scale following three tier approach viz. image processing; field surveys and laboratory analysis; cartography and printings. The image was analyzed for identifying physiographic regions (Fig.), sub regions and units. Soil physiographic models were used for mapping the soils of the region and maps are published state wise on 1:500, 000 scale. The soil maps show 115, 119, 99, 159, 69 and 42 map units of soil family associations in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim and Andaman Nicobar Island, respectively. Each soil map unit shows different kind of soils, their extent and distribution on the landscape. Legend contains the description of dominant phases, which are very useful for the management. The dominant phases include soil depth class, drainage, particle size class, surface texture, erosion, salinity and sodicity. State-wise brief description of soils is as below.
    • Soil resource mapping for district planning (1:50,000 scale)
      For district level planning soil resource mapping was conducted on 1:50,000 scale with soil series association as mapping unit. The exercise is completed for Barddhaman, Bankura, Hugli, Puruliya, Kochbihar and Birbhum districts of West Bengal; Madhubani district in Bihar; Lohardaga and Ranchi districts in Jharkhand; Puri and Sambalpur districts in Orissa and South Sikkim district in Sikkim.
    • Nutrient status mapping for soil health monitoring
      For monitoring the impact of present land use and management on soil health and to develop sustainable alternate land use plan, mapping of nutrient status and stock on real time is imperative. This kind of mapping also helps to understand the contribution of soils towards the stability of ecosystem and climate change. In this regard nutrient mapping status district wise for the state of Jharkhand is taken as pilot project. Soil sampling scheme was developed with grid points at 2.5 km interval and spatial database has created in Arc GIS 9.2. Soil nutrient maps district wise has been developed with help of geo-statistical models in GIS. Available nitrogen (Fig.) and phosphorus (Fig.) maps for the district of Deoghar is given in the text.
    • Established soil series for developing benchmark sites in the region
      The response of similar soil families to the management and their performance with respect to the crop productivity are not alike because of inherent variability in the soils. The variability in soils of the same families was further narrowed down by establishing soil series in the region. In the process data collected during soil resource mapping of India on 1:250,000 scale; data recorded during district surveys and the soil survey data of other state agencies were utilized. The information on soil series is published in the shape of bulletins for each state of the region. The soil series in the bulletin is described with respect to its type location, physiographic position, ground water table, rainfall, slope, erosion, relief, drainage, permeability, land use, geology and parent material, extent and distribution, associated soils and soil correlation. The soil series description also contains typifying pedons, range in characteristics, interpretations (constraints, suggested land use and potential yield), actual crop yield and analytical soil data.
    • Soil erosion assessment for monitoring degradation status
      Following multicriteria overlay, several critical parameter of soil erosion was integrated in GIS for West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar and Sikkim for developing quantitative soil erosion of different states of the region.
      a) West Bengal
      Central and southern part of the state covering around 79.8 % area was very slightly (loss of soil estimated < 5 ton/ha/yr.) to slightly (loss of soil estimated 5-10 ton/ha/yr.) eroded, while eastern Himalayas and undulating terrain of western region, covering 19.8 % area of West Bengal was moderately (loss of soil estimated 10-15 ton/ha/yr) to severely eroded (loss of soil estimated 20-40 ton/ha/yr.) A part of eastern Himalaya and the adjoining region, occupying another 0.39 % area of the state was very severely eroded (loss of soil estimated 40-80 ton/ha/yr).
      b) Bihar
      The soil erosion map of Bihar indicated that the central and northern parts in 87 % area of the state were very slightly to slightly eroded. The hilly area of eastern Himalayas and undulating terrain of southern part, covering another 12.4 % area of the state were moderately to severely eroded. Rohtas, Paschim Champaran and Kaimur region, representing 0.6 % area of Bihar were very severely eroded.
      c) Orissa
      Soil erosion map of Orissa elucidates that Coastal and Garhjat plains, a part of Mahanadi basin and Dandakaranya on 7.7 million hectare land were very slightly eroded. Another 2.8 million hectare area in Mahanadi basin was slightly eroded, while a part of Eastern ghat and Garhjat hills, covering 4.1 million hectare land in the state was moderately to severely eroded. Very severe and extremely severe eroded soils were located in the hilly terrain of Eastern ghat and Garhjat hilly area.
    • Agro-ecological zoning of West Bengal
      For delineating the uniform area with respect to climate, soils and land use, agro-ecological maps have been prepared within the agro-ecological region and sub-regions by superimposing bio-climate, length of growing period map, soils and landforms on 1:1 million scale in GIS. In the exercise twenty nine agro-ecological zones have been carved out for West Bengal (Fig.). For further narrowing down the variability agro-ecological unit map has been delineated within agro-ecological zones by superimposing LGP (10 days interval based on actual AWC), bio-climate on soil physiographic maps.
    • Characterization of Simana Sub-watershed in Subarnarekha Catchment, West Bengal for Land Use Planning using IRS Data
      Reconnaissance soil survey was carried out in Simana subwatershed (9100 ha), West Medinipur, West Bengal. Twenty soil series were identified and mapped into 21 soil mapping units. Soils are classified in Alfisols (35.8%), Inceptisols (57.9%) and Entisols (6.3%). Various soil based thematic maps were prepared and a rational land use options were suggested.
    • Soil resource inventory (1:50,000 scale) of Lohardaga District, Jharkhand
      Reconnaissance soil survey of the Lohardaga district was carried out on 1:50,000 scale. Twenty six soil series were identified and mapped in 35 soil mapping units. Alfisols (45.09%) were the most dominant soils followed by Inceptisols (28.03 %) and Entisols (16.58%). Soils on hills have major problems of steep slopes, coarse texture, water stress, strong to extreme soil acidity, low CEC and BS and low fertility. Soils on plateau have major problems of coarse texture, water stress, moderate to strong soil acidity, low organic carbon, CEC and base saturation and low fertility. Various interpretative maps were prepared and a rational land use options were suggested.
    • Soil Resource Inventory and Land Evaluation of Baripada Sub- division, Mayurbhanj District, Orissa (1:50,000 scale)
      Baripada subdivision in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa was surveyed on 1:50,000 scale. Thirty one soil series were identified and was mapped in twenty six soil series associations. Entisols, Inceptisols and Alfisols covered 20.6%, 35.8% and 43.6% area of the sub-division. Thematic maps on slope, drainage, soil erosion, soil depth, texture, soil pH, organic carbon, land capability, irrigability and crop suitability were prepared.
    • Land Use Planning at Block Level in two Agro-Ecological Sub-Regions of West Bengal
      The soil of Chakdaha block in Nadia district are highly suitable for rice, moderately suitable for jute, moderately to marginal suitable for wheat, mustard and sesame due to imperfect to poor drainage and heavy texture of the soils. The land capability, land irrigability, Storie Index and Riquier’s Productivity Index map (actual and potential) of Chakdah block were generated to prepare rational land use plan. Adoption of management measures like, drainage improvement, irrigation, addition of organic matter and fertilizer management will improve the potential productivity Index of soils from II (good) to I (excellent).
    • Detailed soil survey of Shankarpur and Massipirhi farms of Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (ICAR), Hazaribag, Jharkhand
      In shankarpur farm (26.2 ha) five landforms and nine soil series were identified and mapped into 17 soil phases of series. Inceptisols (61.1 %) were the most dominant soils followed by Alfisols (37.97 %) and Entisols (1.01 %). Soils of 63.9 % area is acidic, in which very strongly acidic (20.2%) and strongly acidic 8.1%. About 48 per cent area of the farm are under the capability sub-class of IIIe followed by IIIes (23.1 %) and IIIs (9.3 %). Soils are moderately to marginally suitable for bunded rice and highly to moderately suitable for wheat, maize, millets and pea. In Masipiri farm (3.9 ha) four land forms and six soil series were identified and mapped into seven mapping units at phase level. Alfisols (52.9 %) are the dominant soils followed by Inceptisols (47.1 %). About seventy eight per cent area of the farm are acidic. Soils of 44.9 per cent area of the farm area are grouped under the capability grouping IIIe followed by IIIsw (41.5 %), IIIs (8.0 %) and IIIes (5.6 %). The major soil constraints are water stress, soil acidity, deficiency of phosphorus and zinc. The soils are moderately to marginally suitable for growing upland and bunded rice, maize, pea and millets.
    • Soil Resource Mapping of West Bengal on 1:250,000 scale for Optimum Land Use Planning during 1986-1996.
      The soils of the state are classified in Inceptisol, Alfisol and Entisol soil orders. Inceptisols were the dominant soils covering 49% area of the state. The extent of Alfisols and Entisols were 25 and 23 % area in the state. The soils were further classified in ten suborders, nineteen great groups and thirty six subgroups and fifty nine soil families within the soil orders. Soil degradation was assessed on 30.9 % area of the state. Of the degradational process water erosion affected 19.7 % area of West Bengal, while salinization and water logging were mapped on 3.2 and 6.9 % of the state, respectively. Agro-ecological sub-region wise problems and potentialities of soils for different crops were identified.
    • Soil Resource Mapping of Bihar on 1:250,000 scale for Optimum Land Use Planning during 1986-1996
      Inceptisols were the dominant soil order covering 42.4 % area of the state. The contribution of Alfisols, Entisols and Vertisols in the total geographical area of Bihar was 16.7, 36.8 and 0.3 %, respectively. The soils were further classified in seven suborders, fourteen great groups, twenty nine subgroups and fifty four soil families within soil orders. Water erosion alone was the serious threat in 23.3 % area, while it together with flooding was the cause of concern in 11.5 % area of the state. Salinity alone or in combination with flooding affected 1.3 % area of Bihar.
    • Soil Resource Mapping of Jharkhand on 1:250,000 scale for Optimum Land Use Planning during 1986-1996
      The soils of the state were distributed in four soil orders, eight suborders, seventeen great groups, thirty three subgroups and sixty one soil families. Alfisols were the dominant soil order, covering 54.6 % area of the state. The Inceptisols (26.5 % area of the state) and Entisols (15.9 % area of the state) were the next in terms of acreage in the state. Vertisols were mapped on only 0.8 % area of Jharkhand. Degradation status was very critical in the state. The various type of degradational process were operating on 72.5 % area of the state.
    • Soil Resource Mapping of Orissa on 1:250,000 scale for Optimum Land Use Planning during 1986-1996
      Inceptisols cover 48.8 % area of the state. The extent of Alfisols, Entisols and Vertisols was mapped on 33.52, 10.16 and 5.52 % area of Orissa, respectively. These soils were further classified into ten suborders, seventeen great groups, forty one subgroups and ninety eight soil families. Degradation assessment indicated that 34.4 % area of the state was affected with water erosion. Physical deterioration on account of water logging and flooding was noted on 2.9 and 1.5 % area respectively. Problem of salinity was observed on another 0.5 % area of the state. Based on the problems and potentials of the soils and their site characteristics, the suitability evaluation for different crops was carried out.
    • Soil Resource Atlases mapping of Sikkim State on 1:250,000 scale for Optimum Land Use Planning during 1986-1996
      Soils of the state belong to three soil orders namely Entisols (42.54 % of the area), Inceptisols (42.52 % of the area) and Mollisols (14.64 % of the area). The classification was further detailed in seven suborders, twelve great groups, twenty six subgroups and seventy eight soil families. Haplumbrepts in Inceptisols, occupying 30.66 % area of the state was the predominant great group followed by Udorthents (29.6 % of the area) and Cryorthents (11.9 % of the area) of Entisol and Hapludolls (11.8 % of the area) of Mollisol soil orders. Water erosion was one of the dominant soil degradation processes affecting around 34 % area of the state. The soil suitability evaluation of the state has been carried out for high value added horticultural crops and agro-forestry. Potential areas for these crops have been delineated.
    • Soil Resource Atlases mapping of A & N Islands on 1:250,000 scale for Optimum Land Use Planning during 1986-1996
      The soils of the Island have been classified into four soil orders, which were further detailed in eight suborders, eleven great groups, eighteen subgroups and thirty seven families. Inceptisols were the dominant soils followed by Entisols, Alfisols and Mollisols, occupying 44.2, 37.9, 6.0 and 4.1 % area of the Island, respectively. Moderate to severe influence of water erosion was noted on 22.8 % area, while chemical deterioration on account of marine salinity was located in 9.1 % area of the Island.

    Externally Funded Projects (National)

     

    • Assessment and Mapping of some important Soil Parameters including soil acidity for the state of Jharkhand (1:50000 scale) towards Rational Land Use Plan.
      Soil sampling scheme (0-25 cm depth) was developed with grid points at 2.5 km interval and spatial database has created in Arc GIS 9.2. District wise soil nutrient maps has been developed using geo-statistical models in GIS. The results reveal that soils of about 49 per cent of the state are extremely to strongly acidic (pH <4.5 to 5.5) and 36 per cent area under moderate to slight soil acidic. Low available phosphorus, medium nitrogen, potassium, sulphur and deficiency of zinc, copper and boron indicated low fertility status of soils in the state.
    • Assessment and Mapping of Some Important Parameters including Macro and Micronutrients for the State of West Bengal (1:50,000 scale) towards Optimum Land Use Plan
      The results indicate that low soil pH is one of the dominant problems in the eastern region. About 52.3 to 81.8 % area in Haora, Nadia, Barddhaman, Birbhum, North 24-Parganas and Hugli was affected with slight to strong acidity, 55 to 92.9 % with potassium stress and 48 to 88 percent phosphorus deficiency and 59.7 to 83.3 percent area low in zinc. The isolated spots of high concentration of sulphur indicated the localized deposition of sulfidic material. The problems of sulphur outcropping were extensive in Hoara and North 24-Parganas.

    Externally Funded Projects (Foreign)

    NIL

    Consultancy Projects

    NIL

    Major Works Completed

     

    1. District soil surveys: Barddhaman, Birbhum, Bankura, Hugli, Koch Bihar and Puruliya in West Bengal; Lohardaga and Ranchi district of Jharkhand; Madhubani district of Bihar; Sambalpur and Puri districts, Baripada Sub- division, Mayurbhanj District of Orissa; South Sikkim district, Sikkim
    2. Watersheds Surveyed: Upper Kasai Watershed, Puruliya district, Patloi Nala micro-watershed, Hura block, Puruliya distrct, Simana sub-watershed, Jhargram sub-division, West Medinipur district, Silai Basin, Rarh Region, Mamring watershed in Darjiling district, West Bengal; Subarnrekha watershed, Ranchi district, Tilsimani Nala micro-watershed, Kanke block, Ranchi district, Potpota watershed (Muramu Cluster), Bero block, Ranchi district, Jumar Sub-Watershed, District Ranchi, Jharkhand; Kanchinala micro-watershed, Puri, Orissa, Major Watersheds in Tista Basin, Mini Watersheds of the River Tista, Namthang Circle, South Sikkim, Singhik Subwatershed, Mangan, North Sikkim, Chalumthang Microwatershed, Sikkim; Gurusti Nala Watershed, Palamu, Bihar.
    3. Village/Research Farms:

      State : West Bengal

      • Detailed soil survey of Jute Agri. Res. Institute (ICAR), 24-Parganas (N).
      • Seven village of Sonarpur PS, 24-Parganas district (S).
      • Sagar Island, 24-Parganas district (S).
      • Bagnan, district Haora, West Bengal.
      • PS. Debra and Tamluk, Medinipur district.
      • Tufanganj and Dinahata, Kochbihar.
      • Soils of Singibhita Mouza Comprehensive area development corporation, Silliguri-Nakshalbari project, district Darjeeling.
      • Soils of Ratua comprehensive area development project, District Malda, West Bengal.
      • Soils of Gelia and Maynapur group of villages, Jaypur PS Indo-British Fertilizer Education Project, Bankura dist.
      • Soils of Deganga comprehensive area development project, District 24-Parganas (North).
      • Detailed Soil Survey for Land Use Planning of BCKV Central Farm (Gayashpur), Nadia
      • Detailed Soil Survey for Land Use Planning, Chakdah Farm, BCKV, Dist. Nadia, West Bengal.
      • Soils of IVRI Farm (ICAR), Kalyani, Nadia district

      State: Jharkhand

      • Detailed soil survey of Indian Lac Research Institute Farm, Namkum
      • Detailed Soil Survey of Shankarpur and Masipiri Farms of Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (ICAR), Hazaribagh, Jharkhand
      • Central Horticultural Experiment Station, PS. Namkum and Hatia, District Ranchi.
      • Operational Research Project Area, Chama and Barhu villages, Kanke PS., Ranchi district.

      State: Orissa

      • Soil Survey of the Land Colonization Project at Kanijodi, Dist. Koraput, Orissa
      • Soil survey report of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute Farm (ICAR), Aiginia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
      • Soil survey report of Sisal Research Farm.
      • Soils of Central Rice Research Institute Farm, Cuttack

      State: Sikkim

      • Soil Survey Report of National Research Centre for Orchid (ICAR), Pakyong Farm, East Sikim.

      State: Andaman and Nicobar

      • Detailed soil survey of ICAR Farm, Village Pronthropur, Tehsil
    4. Others
      • Soil resources of Jaldapara Researved forest, Jalpaiguri dist.
      • Soil resources of Garumara Researved forest, Jalpaiguri district.
      • Forest soils of Medinipur dist.
      • Forest soils of Bankura district.
      • Forest soils of Puruliya district.
      • Development of regional scale watershed plans and methodo-logies for identification of critical areas for prioritized land treatment in the watersheds (NATP-RRPS-17).
    Ongoing Projects

    Institute Projects

    • Network project- Development of district level land use plan- Nadia and Puruliya districts
    • Land use planning at block level in two Agro-Ecological Sub-Regions of West Bengal
    • Effect of land use changes on total soil organic carbon (SOC) and its active pool in humid to per humid eco-region of West Bengal.
    • Soil resource inventory and land evaluation of Rohtas district, Bihar (1:50,000 scale) for Land Use Planning
    • Soil based approach towards land use planning using remote sensing and GIS
    • Land resource appraisal of Silai Basin, Rarh Region, West Bengal for optimum land utilization
    • Correlation of Soil Series of Eastern States (Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim and West Bengal)
    • Preparation of Soil Resource Inventory of Coastal Salt Affected Areas of West Bengal and Orissa using Satellite Imagery and Characteristics and Classification of the Soils to Determine their Potentialities, Problems and Management (In collaboration with WTCER, Bhubaneswar, Orissa)
    • Soil resource inventory and land evaluation of Aurangabad district Bihar for land use planning
    • Identification and characterization of benchmark soils of Bihar for agro-technology transfer.
    • Natural resource assessment using remote sensing and GIS – A case study in Badajorenala micro-watershed in Utkal Plain of Khurda district, Orissa.
    • Geomorphometric and hydrological evaluation of a micro-watershed in Chhotanagpur Plateau, West Bengal for sustainable utilization of soil and water resources.
    • Land resource inventory for farm planning in Chinsura-Mogra and Polba –Dadpur block, Hugli district, West Bengal

    Externally funded Projects (National)

     

    Externally funded projects (Foreign)

     

    Externally Funded (Sponsored Projects)

    • Assessment and Mapping of Some Important Parameters including Macro and Micronutrients for the State of West Bengal (1:50,000 scale) towards Optimum Land Use Plan (Sponsored Project).
    • Assessment and mapping of some important soil parameters including macro & micro nutrients at block level of Dumka, Jamtara and Hazaribagh districts for optimum land use plan (Funded by Deptt. of Agriculture and Cane Development, Govt. of Jharkhand)
    Capacity Building

    The Centre has taken up a massive programme on Human Resource Development through regular training at its Regional Centre, Kolkata. The major fields on which trainings are imparted are – soil survey and mapping, land evaluation, application of remote sensing and GIS in Natural Resource Management (NRM), watershed management and soil, water and plant analysis. The faculty members of the Institute are well experienced and are also trained in different specialized subjects both in India and abroad. Some experts are also invited to deliver lectures in different courses from the reputed Institutes of the region and from Head quarters at Nagpur and other Regional Centres of the Bureau. The Institute has now build up excellent infrastructure facilities and Training Hostel that has a capacity of catering to the needs of 25 trainees. The Institute also has very good audio-visual facilities and training materials as teaching aid.

    Post Graduate Teaching and Education

    The Regional Centre, Kolkata signed a TMOU with Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Dist. Nadia, West Bengal to undertake a joint collaborative project on Post Graduate teaching under the discipline of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry with specialization in Land Resource Management (LRM).

    Training Imparted

    Regional Centre, Kolkata has been conducting various training programmes for the Central and State Govt. officials pertaining to Eastern and North Eastern States as well as few other states mainly in the areas comprising of :

    • Soil Survey Techniques, Soil Correlation, Classification, Mapping and Interpretation of data towards Land Use Planning
    • Land Evaluation for Watershed towards Micro-level Planning using Remote Sensing and GIS
    • Application of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in Soil Resource Mapping Towards Land Use Planning

    Institute Training Programmes

    • Ten days training programme on “Soil Survey and Mapping towards Land Use Planning” from 14.03.2002 to 23.03.2002. 16 officers from Agriculture and Horticulture Deptt. Govt. of Tripura participated in the training program.
    • Six weeks training programme on “Soil Survey Techniques, Soil Correlation, Classification, Mapping and Interpretation of Data towards Land Use Planning” was oranised from 03.06.2002 to 12.07.2002. 09 Officers from various institutes of both state and central governments participated the training programme
    • One month training programme entitled, “Soil Resource Appraisal towards land Use Planning using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System” for the period from 20th May to 19th June, 2004. Nine officers of ICAR, State and Central Government participated in the training and completed successfully.
    • An orientation training programme was organized for the Scientists and Technical Officers of the Bureau from 05.03.2009 to 14.03.2009. 11 Scientists and Technical Officers of the bureau participated in the training program.

    Sponsored Training Programmes

    • Three weeks training programme on “Soil survey and land evaluation for land use planning” under NATP project from 24.11.2001 to 15.12.2001under NATP project of LUPMAR(MM-III-28). Twenty-two trainee officers of different State Agricultural Universities and ICAR Institute joined the training programme.
    • Training Programme on “Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Soil Resource Mapping Towards Land Use Planning” sponsored by National Natural Resource Management System (NNRMS), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Bangalore, Department of Space, Govt. of India from 29.11.2006 to 19.12.2006. Total 12 Trainee Officers from ICAR/SAU’s/NABARD and State and Central Government were participated in the training program.
    • Twenty one days ICAR sponsored Summer School on “Land Evaluation for Watershed towards Micro-level Planning using Remote Sensing and GIS” from 24.08.2006 to 13.09.2006. Total 15 Trainee Officers from ICAR/ SAU’s/CAU’s and State Government attended the Summer School.
    • Hosted a Training programme on New Pension Scheme conducted by NSDL for East Zone on 8th December 2009 as per the instruction and guidance from the Director (Finance ICAR New Delhi).

    Others

    • Hosted Brain Storming Session on “Natural Resource Management: Lesson Learnt and Task Ahead” in collaboration with Indian Society of Soil Science Kolkata Chapter on September 7, 2009.
    Linkages
    • Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, BCKV, PO. Kalyani, Dist. Nadia, West Bengal.
    • Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, PO. Pundibari, Dist. Cooch Behar
    • Vishwa Bharati University, Santiniketan , Bolpur, West Bengal
    • Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand.
    • Rejendra Agriculture University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar
    • Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), Bhubaneswar
    • Directorate of Agriculture, Govt. of West Bengal, Writers’ Building, Kolkata.
    • Directorate of Agriculture, Soil Conservation. Poddar Court, Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata.
    • Department of Agriculture and Cane Development, Jharkhand
    • Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
    • Soil and Land Use Survey of India, Deptt. of Agril. & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, Kolkata
    • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Headquarters, Antariksh Bhavan, New BEL Road, Bangalore.
    Future Thrust Areas
    • Conversion of multi-scale qualitative data to scale free quantitative database
    • Develop compatibility between soil survey database and land use planning.
    • Making soil survey vibrant and dynamic
    • Linking organic carbon dynamics with soil surveys in GIS environment
    • Developing methodology for land use and climate based soil survey
    • Management based soil classification system
    • Developing methodology for export oriented land use planning
    • Methodological surge in Soil Resource Mapping, Soil Correlation, and Interpretation of data base for developing alternate land use plan in Eastern Himalayas, Central Highland, Chhotanagpur Plateau, Indo-Gangetic and Coastal Plains.
    • Remote Sensing Applications in Soil Resource Mapping and monitoring the impact of a set of land use and management on soil quality in the Eastern Region.
    • Introspection of soil resource database for the identification of benchmark soils of the country with a view to develop soil land use model in the region.
    • To develop multilayered scale neutral database in GIS on real time scale with a view to delineating potential zone for carbon sequestration/ trading in the region.
    • Studying Soil degradation status and dynamics under different land use and management system for developing sustainable, non-degradable soil-land use model for the region.
    • Developing soil quality based land evaluation scheme for mitigating the impact of climate change and degradation.
    Major Publications (Research papers/Reports/Technical Bulletins)

    Research Journals

    1. Avasthe,R.K., Bhutia,T. Tshering, Pradhan,Yashoda and Das,K (2005). Mountain Production System Analysis-A Case Study from Chalumthang,South Sikkim,India ( 2005) Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 27(2):69-104
    2. Banerjee Tapati (1998) Role of cartography in integrated pest management. Indian Journal of Land Systems & Ecological Studies. 21 (1) : 43-46
    3. Banerjee Tapati and S.C.Mukhopadhyay (2006) Morphometric analysis of Silabati watershed for priority area identification. Indian Journal of Land Systems & Ecological Studies. 28 (1): 75-83
    4. Banerjee Tapati, Dipak Sarkar & D.C.Nayak (2000) Estimation of soil erosion in Bankura district. Geographical Review of India. 62 (2): 116-125
    5. Bhattachayya, T., Ray, S. K., Sahoo, A. K., Durge, S.L., Chandran, P., Sarkar, D. and Pal, D. K. (2006) Pan formation in soils under paddy-potato/ mustard- paddy system in Indo-Gangetic Plain, West Bengal. Rice Wheat Consortium web page http://www.rwc.cgiar.org Pub_Info.asp?ID=165.
    6. Bhattacharyya, T., Sen, T.K., Singh, R.S., Nayak, D.C. and Sehgal, J.L. (1994) Morphology and classification of Ultisols with Kandic horizon in North Eastern Region. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 42: 301-306.
    7. Chattopadhyay, T., Sahoo, A. K. and Shyampura, R. L. and Singh, R. S. (2003) Sand mineralogy of extreme hot arid eco-region soils of Rajasthan. Indian Agric. 47(3 & 4) : 241 – 246.
    8. Chattopadhyay, T., Sahoo, A.K. and Shyampura, R.L. (1997). Mineralogy of fine sand fraction of different soils in the eastern upland region of Rajasthan. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 45(2), 411-413.
    9. Chattopadhyay, T., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (1996). Available micronutrients status in the soils of Vindhyan Scarplands of Rajasthan in relation to soil characteristics. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 44 (4), 678-681.
    10. Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, R.S. Sahoo, A.K. and Shyampura, R.L. (1997). Available micronutrient status of Rajasthan Soils. Agropedology. 7 (1), 40-43.
    11. Das, A.L.; Sarkar, Dipak and Sahoo, A. K (2000). Characteristics and classification of soils under different landforms of little Andaman. Ind. Jour. Landscape Sys. Ecol. Stud 23 (11) : 39 – 44.
    12. Das, K., Sarkar, Dipak and Nayak, D.C. (2000). Forms of potassium and their distribution in soils of West Bengal. J. Potassium Research. 15 (1): 1-6
    13. Das, K., Sarkar, Dipak, and Mukhopadhyay K. (2007). Evaluation of soil erodibility factor “K” and its relationship with some soil properties of Mamring-Patle microwatershed in Darjeeling. Indian J. of Soil Conservation. 35(2): 125-128.
    14. Das, T.H., Sarkar, Dipak and Bera, R. (2005). Resource Appraisal of Damodar Catchment (Part), Bardhaman District, West Bengal. Agropedology, 15(1): 39-50.
    15. Das, T .H., Sarkar, Dipak; Bera, R.and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2005). Water retention characteristics of some typical Inceptisols developed on alluvial plain of Damodar Catchment (Part), West Bengal, Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 33(2): 123-137.
    16. Das, T.H.,Sarkar, Dipak and Sehgal, J.L.(1997). Soil-site suitability for sugarcane in and around operational area of sugar factories, West Bengal, Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 45(1): 162-167.
    17. Das, T.H., Sarkar, Dipak and Sehgal, J.L.(1997). Soil acidity on steep slope of Sikkim at higher altitude, Journal of Indian, Society of Soil Science, 45(4): 319-321.
    18. Dutta D, Tapati Banerjee and Dipak Sarkar (2006) Climatic characteristics & crop planning – A case study in Birbhum district of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Soil Conservations. 34 (2): 167-168
    19. Dutta, D., Sah, K. D and Reddy, R. S. (1999) Quantitative evaluation of soil development in some Alfisols of Andhra Pradesh. J. Indian soc. Soil Sci. 47(2): 311-315.
    20. Dutta, D., Sah, K. D., Anil Kumar, K. S., Kokoyal, A and Reddy, R. S. (2000) Soil organic carbon storage in different landforms of southeren Deccan Plateau of Andhra Pradesh. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48 (3)
    21. Gangopadhyay, S. K., Sarkar Dipak, Sahoo, A. K. and Das, K. (2005) Forms and distribution of potassium in some soils of Ranchi plateau. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 53 (3), 413-416.
    22. Gangopadhyay, S.K. Bhattacharyya, T and Sarkar Dipak (2001) Rubber growing soils of Tripura –their characteristics and classification. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil science, 49(1) : 164-177.
    23. Gangopadhyay, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T and Sarkar Dipak (2008) Nature of acidity in some soils of South Tripura. Agropedology, 18(1) : 12-20
    24. Gangopadhyay, S.K., Das, P.K.; Mukhopadhyay, N., Nath, S. and Banerjee, S.K. (1990) Altitudinal pattern of soil characteristics under forest vegetation in Eastern Himalayan Region. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 38(4) : 93-99
    25. Gangopadhyay, S.K.; Bhattacharyya, T and Sarkar Dipak (2008). Soil resource information for land evaluation – A case study with selected soils from south Tripura district of north- east in India. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 56(1) : 14-22.
    26. Gangopadhyay, S.K.; Sarkar Dipak; Sahoo, A.K. and Das, K (2005) Forms and distribution of Potassium in some soils of Ranchi Plateau. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 53(3): 413-416.
    27. Gangopadhyay, S.K.; Walia, C.S.; Chamuah, G.S. and Baruah, U (1998) Rice growing soils of upper Brahmaputra valley of Assam – their characteristics and suitability. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 46(1) : 103-109.
    28. Ghosh, A. K., Sarkar, D., Bhattacharyya, P., Maurya, U.K and Nayak, D.C.(2006) Mineralogical study of some arsenic contaminated soils of West Bengal, India. Geoderma 136: 300-309
    29. Ghosh, A.K., Sarkar, D., Nayak. D.C and Bhattacharyya (2004) Assessment of a sequential extraction procedure for fractionation of soil arsenic in contaminated soils. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 50: 583-591
    30. Ghosh, S., Sarkar Dipak and Sahoo, A. K. (2005) Nature, distribution and ameliorative response of soil acidity in a test site of hot dry sub-humid belt of West Bengal. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 53 (1) : 66-73
    31. Giri J. D., Das , K and Shyampura, R. L. ( 2002). Occurrence of gypsiferrous and associated soils of Bikaner district of Rajasthan and evaluation of their land use for field pedogenic characteristics. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. Vol. 50(1) : 189 – 196
    32. M. Dutta, K. D. Sah, S.K. Gupta and S. K. Banerjee (1990) Characteristics of cinchona growing soils of Darjeeling Himalayan region. Indian Agric. 34(2): 73-77.
    33. Maiti P. S., K. D. Sah, S.K. Gupta and S. K. Banerjee (1992) Evaluation of sewage sludge as a source of irrigation and manure. . J. Indian Soc.Soil Sci. Vol. 40 (1): 168-172.
    34. Maji, A.K; Nayak, D.C; Krishna, N.D.R; Srinivas, C.V; Kamble Kalpana; Obi Reddy, G.P and Velayutham, M (2001) Soil information system of Arunachal Pradesh in a GIS environment for land use planning. J A G, 3(1): 69-77.
    35. Mukhopadhyay, K., Das, K and Sarkar Dipak (2006), Major Bio-Physical Constraints in Crop Production in Darjiling Himalayas-A case study in Mamring Microwatershed,Kurseong Journal of Interacademicia 10(3) : 354-363
    36. Naidu, L.G.K.,Reddy,R.S., Sah, K.D., Bhaskar, B. P., Dutta, D., Niranjan, B. A., Dhanokar, S., Srinivas, S.,Venugopal, K.R., Nagraju ,M.S.S Ray, S. K.,and Raghumohan, N.G (1998) Mapping of agro-ecological zones of Andhra Pradesh through soil resource data . Indian J. Agric Sci. vol. 68(10).
    37. Nayak, D.C. and Srivastava, Rajeev (1995) Soils of shifting cultivated area in Arunachal Pradesh and their suitability for land use planning. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 43: 246-251.
    38. Nayak, D. C.; Sarkar, Dipak and Das, K. (2002). Forms and distribution of pedogenic iron, aluminium and manganese in some benchmark soils of West Bengal. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. Vol. 50(1) : 89 – 93.
    39. Nayak, D.C., Sarkar, Dipak; Das, K and Chatterjee (1999) Studies on pedogenesis in a soil chronosequence in West Bengal J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 47(2): 322-328.
    40. Nayak, D.C., Varadachari, C. and Ghosh, K. (1990) Influence of organic acidic functional groups of humic substances in complexation with clay minerals. Soil Sci. 159 (5): 268-71.
    41. Nayak, D.C; Sarkar, Dipak and Das, K. (2002) Forms and distribution of pedogenic Iron, Aluminium and Manganese in some Benchmark soils of West Bengal. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 50(1): 89-93.
    42. Nayak, D.C; Sarkar, Dipak and Das, K. (2002) Forms and distribution of pedogenic iron, aluminium and manganese in some benchmark soils of West Bengal. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 50(1): 89-93.
    43. Nayak, D.C; Sen, T.K; Chamuah, G.S. and Sehgal, J.L. (1996) Nature of soil acidity in some soils of Manipur. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 44(2): 209-214.
    44. Pal, D., Das, A.K., Gupta, S.K. and Sahoo, A.K. (1996). Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of some mangrove forest zones of the Sunderbans, West Bengal. Indian Agric. 40 (2), 71-76.
    45. Paul, P. P., Sahoo, A. K. and Sarkar Dipak (2005). Uptake and accumulation of metals in different parts of beenweed (Ipomia Sp.) plants receiving sewage water. Indian Journal of Landscape System and Ecological Studies. 28(2), 109-112.
    46. Paul, P. P., Sarkar Dipak, Sahoo, A. K, Bhattacharyya, B. and Gupta, S. K. (2006). Accumulation of Nutrients in Vegetables Grown in Sewage Irrigated Area. Indian Journal of Fertilizers, 1(12), 51-54.
    47. Ray, S. K., Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Sahoo, A. K., Sarkar, D., Durge, S. L., Raja, P., Maurya, U. K. and Pal, D. K. (2006) On the formation of craking clay soils (Vertisols) in West Bengal. Clay Research. 25 (2): 127-139.
    48. Reddy,R.S., Shivaprasad, C. R., Harindranath, C.S., Venugopal, K.R., Ray, S. K., Nagraju ,M.S.S., Dutta, D., Bhaskar, B. P., Sah, K.D.,Ramesh, V., Niranjan, B. A., Dhanokar, S., Srinivas, S.,and Ramesh, M, (1998) Assessment of soil degradation in Andhra Pradesh . J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. vol . 46 (2).
    49. Sah, K. D., A. K. Sahoo and D. Sarkar (2001) Studies on litter decomposition and nutrient release in some mangrove soils of Sunderbans ecosystem. J. Indian Soc.Coastal agric . Res. 19 (1&2).
    50. Sah, K. D., Sahoo, A. K., Banerjee, S. K. And Gupta, S. K. (1990) Seasonal variation of nutrient concentration in tidal water , interstitial water and mangrove muds of Sunderbans. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 38: 148-151
    51. Sah, K. D., Sarkar, Dipak and Sahoo, A. K. (2006) Assessment of soil biodiversity under different land uses in Coastal Plains of West Bengal – a case study. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agriculture Research. 24 (1) : 38-40.
    52. Sah, K. D.; Sahoo, A. K. and Sarkar D. (2001). Studies on litter decomposition and nutrient release in some mangrove soils of Sunderbans ecosystem by in the Jour. Ind. Soc. Coastal Agril. Res. 19 (1 & 2) : 110 – 111.
    53. Sah, K.D., Sahoo, A.K., Gupta, S.K. and Banerjee, S.K. (1990). Seasonal variation of nutrient concentration in tidal water, interstitial water and mangrove muds of Sunderbans. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 38 (1), 148-151.
    54. Sah, K.D., Sarkar, Dipak; Seal, Antara and Sahoo, A.K. (2009). Soil characterization and available micro-nutrients status in some acid saline soils of coastal agro-ecosystem in West Bengal. Indian Agriculture Vol. 53, No.1&2, pp.69-74.
    55. Sahoo A.K., K. D. Sah, and S.K. Gupta (1995) Organic carbon status in the Sunderbans mangrove soils. J. Indian Soc.Soil Sci. Vol. 43 (2): 265-266.
    56. Sahoo, A. K. and Sarkar Dipak (2005) Impact of landforms on soil formation and land use in the West Singhbhum district, Jharkhand. Indian Journal of Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies. 28 (1),70-74
    57. Sahoo, A. K., Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, R. S. and Shyampura, R. L. (2003) Characterisation of soils and vertical distribution of available micronutrients under different landforms of Malwa plateau, Rajasthan. Indian Agric. 47(3 & 4) : 217 – 223.
    58. Sahoo, A. K., Sarkar Dipak and Gajbhiye K. S. (2004). Soil resource mapping for land use planning. A case study in Tilsimani Nala micro-watershed, Ranchi district, Jharkhand. Indian Cartographer, 24 : 407-413.
    59. Sahoo, A. K., Sarkar, Dipak and Sah, K. D. (2006) Soils of costal region of Orissa and their suitability for various crops. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agriculture Research. 24 (1) : 64-66.
    60. Sahoo, A.K. and Gupta, S.K. (1995). Potassium distribution in some mangrove soils of the Sunderbans. J. Potass. Res. 11 (1), 1-7.
    61. Sahoo, A.K., Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (1995). Available micronutrient status in the soils of Malwa Plateau (Rajasthan). J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 43 (4), 698-700.
    62. Sahoo, A.K., Sah, K.D. and Gupta, S.K. (1993). Clay minerals in mangrove soils. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 41 (1), 210-211.
    63. Sahoo, A.K., Sah, K.D. and Gupta, S.K. (1994). Distribution of micro-organisms in relation to physico-chemical properties in some mangrove soils of the Sunderbans. Indian Agric. 38 (3), 153-158.
    64. Sahoo, A.K., Sah, K.D. and Gupta, S.K. (1995). Organic carbon status in the Sunderbans mangrove soils. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 43 (2), 265-267.
    65. Sahoo, A.K., Sah, K.D. and Gupta, S.K. (1998). Sulphur distribution in some mangrove soils of the Sunderbans. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 46 (1), 138-140.
    66. Sarkar Dipak, Gangopadhyay, S. K. and Sahoo, A. K. (2006) Soil resource appraisal towards land use planning using satellite remote sensing and GIS – a case study in Patloinala microwatershed, district Puruliya, West Bengal. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol. 34 (3) :245-260.
    67. Sarkar, Dipak; Sahoo, A.K. and Nayak, D.C. (1997). Evaluation of pedological development through field morphology rating system. J. India Soc. Soil Sci. 45(1): 141-146.
    68. Sarkar, Dipak, Sahoo, A. K. and Paul P. P. (2006) A close look into the once overlooked Jhuming in Tripura . Indian Journal of Landscape System and Ecological Studies. 29(2), 137-144.
    69. Sarkar Dipak, Nayak, D. C. and Das, K. (2006). Fertility capability classification of soils of Bankura. Indian Journal of Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies. Vol. 29 (1): 113-118.
    70. Sarkar, Dipak and Sahoo, A. K. (2000) Aquepts of Indo-gangetic plains of Bihar and their suitability for some major crops. Jour. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci., 48 (3) : 561-566.
    71. Sarkar, Dipak ; Baruah U.; Gangopadhyay, S. K.; Sahoo, A. K. and Velayutham, M. (2002). Characteristics and classification of soils of Loktak catchment area of Manipur for sustainable land use planning. Jour. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 50 (2) : 197 – 204.
    72. Sarkar, Dipak, Maurya, U.K. and Nayak, D.C. (1999) Clay mineralogy of Benchmark soils of West Bengal. Clay Res. 18(2): 81-97.
    73. Sarkar, Dipak, Sahoo, A.K. and Nayak, D.C. (1997). Evaluation of pedological development through field morphology rating system. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 45 (1), 141-146.
    74. Sarkar, Dipak., N. C. Khandare, K. D. Sah and J. Sehgal (1997) Nature of soil acidity as influenced by climate and topography in some red and lateritic soils of Orissa. J. Indian Soc.Soil Sci. Vol. 45 (1): 1-5.
    75. Sarkar, Dipak; Sahoo, A. K.; Paul, P. P. and Gajbhiye, K. S. (2003). Natural resources of Tripura for sustainable agriculture. Geographical Review of India. 65(2) : 162 – 168.
    76. Sarkar, Dipak; Sahoo, A. K.; Sah, K. D. and Gajbhiye, K. S. (2001). Coastal soils of eastern India – their characteristics, potentials and limitations towards alternate land use by in the Jour. Ind. Soc. Coastal Agril. Res. 19 (1 & 2) : 80 – 83.
    77. Seal., A., K. D. Sah., Dipak Sarkar and A. K. Chatterjee ( 2005 ) Soil Potential rating (SPR) approach for suitability evaluation of some crops in coastal saline soil of Sagar Island, West Bengal. Indian J. Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies. 28(2): 137-140.
    78. Varadachari, C., Mondal, A.H., Nayak, D.C. and Ghosh, K. (1994) Clay-humus complexation: Effect of pH and the nature of bonding. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26(9): 1145-1149.

    Technical bulletins and soil survey reports

    1. NBSS & LUP (1984) Soils of Barddhaman district for Land Use Planning, ICAR Report No. 462, p.
    2. NBSS & LUP (1992) Soils of West Bengal for Optimizing Land Use, NBSS Publ. No. 27, p.48.
    3. NBSS & LUP (1996) Soils of A & N Islands for Optimizing land use, NBSS Publ. No.61, p.57.
    4. NBSS & LUP (1996) Soils of Bihar for Optimizing land use, NBSS Publ. No.50,p.70.
    5. NBSS & LUP (1996) Soils of Sikkim for Optimizing land use, NBSS Publ No.60, p.44.
    6. NBSS & LUP (1998) Soils of Orissa for Optimizing land use, NBSS Publ. No.49, p.64.
    7. NBSS & LUP (1999) Resource soil survey and mapping of rubber growing soils of Kerala & Tamil Nadu, NBSS Publ. No.
    8. NBSS & LUP (1999) Soils of Madhubani district for optimizing land use, NBSS Publ. No.76, p. 177.
    9. NBSS & LUP (2001) Soils of Hugli district for optimizing land use, NBSS Publ.No.88,p.91.
    10. NBSS & LUP (2001) Soil series of West Bengal, NBSS Publ. No.89, p.260.
    11. NBSS & LUP (2002) Land Capability Classes of Catchments Area of Loktak Lake Manipur, NBSS Publ. No. 594, p 39.
    12. NBSS & LUP (2002) Soil Series of Bihar, NBSS Publ. 98, p.289.
    13. NBSS & LUP (2002) Soil Survey Report of NRC for Orchid (ICAR), Pakyong Farm, East Sikkim, NBSS Publ.551, p.21
    14. NBSS & LUP (2002) Soils of Puri district, Orissa for Optimising Land Use, NBSS Publ. No. 602, p.58.
    15. NBSS & LUP (2003) Soils of Chalumthang Micro-watershed, Sikkim under hill and mountain agro-ecosystem, Report No. 673,p.40.
    16. NBSS & LUP (2003) Soils of Central Rice Research Institute Farm, NBSS Publ.No.635, p.48.
    17. NBSS & LUP (2003) Soils of Kanchinala Micro-watershed Puri, Orissa, under coastal agro-ecosystem, Report No. 638, p.32.
    18. NBSS & LUP (2004) Soil Resources of Barddhaman, Hugli and South 24-Parganas District, West Bengal, Report No.787, p.22.
    19. NBSS & LUP (2004) Soils of Haldia Planning Area, District Medinipur, West Bengal, Report No. 788, p.8.
    20. NBSS & LUP (2004) Soil Resources of Jaldapara Reserved Forest, Jalapaguri District, West Bengal, Report No. 789, p.12.
    21. NBSS & LUP (2004) Soil Resources of Garumara Reserved Forest, Jalapaguri District, West Bengal, Report No. 790, p.8.
    22. NBSS & LUP (2004) Forest Soils of Medinipur district, West Bengal, Report No. 792, p.12.
    23. NBSS & LUP (2004) Forest Soils of Bankura district, West Bengal, Report No. 793,p.13.
    24. NBSS & LUP (2004) Forest Soils of Puruliya district, West Bengal, Report No. 794,p.10.
    25. NBSS & LUP (2004) Soils of IVRI Farm, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, NBSS Publ.772, p.46.
    26. NBSS & LUP (2005) Soil Erosion of Bihar, NBSS Publ. 125, p.49.
    27. NBSS & LUP (2005) Soil Erosion of Orissa. NBSS Publ. 126, p.48p.
    28. NBSS & LUP (2005) Soil Resources of Major Watersheds in Tista Basin, Sikkim, NBSS Publ. No. 849, p.117
    29. NBSS & LUP (2005) Soils of Krishnagiri Farm, Longol Hill, ICAR Complex, Manipur, NBSS Publ. Report No. 851, p. 60.
    30. NBSS & LUP (2005) Soil Series of Orissa, NBSS Publ. 119, p.254.
    31. NBSS & LUP (2005) Soil erosion of West Bengal, NBSS Publ. 117, p.59.
    32. NBSS & LUP (2005) The Soils of Bankura district (West Bengal) for Land Use Planning, NBSS Publ.No. 33, p.64.
    33. NBSS & LUP (2006) Assessment and mapping of some important soil parameters including soil acidity for the state of Jharkhand (1:50,000 Scale) towards rational land use plan. NBSS Report No. 946, p.243.
    34. NBSS & LUP (2006) Soil Fertlity Atlas – Jharkhand, NBSS & LUP, Regional Centre, Kolkata, p.
    35. NBSS & LUP (2007) Optimizing Land Use of Birbhum District (West Bengal) Soil Resource Assessment, NBSS Publ. No. 130, p.96.
    36. NBSS & LUP (2008). Detailed Soil Survey of Shankarpur and Masipiri Farms of Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (ICAR), Hazaribagh, Jharkhand NBSS Publ. No. 1026, p.71.
    37. NBSS & LUP (2008) Mineralogy of Benchmark soils of West Bengal, NBSS Publ. No. 139, p.171.
    38. NBSS & LUP (2008) Soils of Ranchi district, Jharkhand for Optimizing Land Use, NBSS Publ. No. 1023, p.86.
    39. NBSS & LUP (2008) Soils of Aurangabad district, Bihar for Land Use Planning, NBSS Publ. No. 1021, p.72.
    40. NBSS & LUP (2008) Soils of Sambalpur district, Orissa for Optimising Land Use, NBSS Publ. No. 1018, p.59.
    41. NBSS & LUP (2008) Soils of South Sikkim district, Sikkim for Optimising Land Use, NBSS Publ. No. 1022, NBSS & LUP (ICAR), Nagpur, 70p.
    42. NBSS & LUP (2008) Soils of Koch Bihar district, West Bengal for Optimizing Land Use, NBSS Publ. No. 1019, NBSS & LUP (ICAR), Nagpur, 70p.
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