New Delhi

    About the Centre

    Regional Centre, Delhi is one of the oldest centre of National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning and is involved in soil resource mapping, soil correlation & classification and undertaking research in land use planning, agro-ecological mapping, soil/land degradation status in Northern Region of the country comprising the states of Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Total area under its jurisdiction is about 66.8 million ha which covers approximately one fifth of total geographical area of the country. By virtue of its location in the capital as also in the heart of the vast Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain, the centre ranks as a pride with immense responsibility towards managing the natural resources in the high intensity agricultural zone of the country. This centre is presently located in sprawling green campus of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi.

    Mandate
    • Soil survey and mapping at different levels (state, district, watershed, command area, village and farm) for soil resource inventorisation.
    • Development of methodology to conduct soil survey using remotely sensed data products.
    • Correlation of soils at different categorical levels.
    • Development of soil classification rationale.
    • Preparation of land resource maps of the region and their agro-ecological inventory.
    • Preparation of various thematic maps at different levels.
    • Assessment of soil degradation for resource conservation.
    • Monitoring changes in soil quality.
    • Applied and basic research in pedology, remote sensing application and land evaluation for land use planning.
    • Application of remote sensing and GIS in natural resource management research.
    • Establishment of soil databank, soil museum and documentation centre.
    • Coordination of soil surveys conducted by different agencies.
    • Training in soil resource mapping and land evaluation.
    • Offering need based training in soil resource management.
    • Consultancy services in the fields of Bureau’s specialization and expertise.
    List of Scientist
    Name Designation Discipline E-mail  
    Dr. R.P. Yadav Principal Scientist & Head Soil Science rpy2004@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. S. K. Mahapatra Principal Scientist Soil Science sankarkmahapatra@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. Dharam Singh Senior Scientist Agronomy dharam_singh1959@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. (Mrs) Jaya N. Surya Senior Scientist Soil Science jayansurya@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Sh. R.V.S. Rao Scientist Soil Science -  
    Sh. Ashok Kumar Scientist Agronomy ashok_nbss@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Sh. Rajesh Kumar Meena Scientist Soil Science rkmwtc@gmail.com View Biodata
    Sh. Vikas Scientist Agril.Statistics vikashhau@gmail.com View Biodata
    Ms Ritu Nagdev Scientist Environmental Science ritunagdev@gmail.com View Biodata
    Infrastructure
     

     

    Analytical Laboratory

    Delhi Regional Centre is having well equipped Analytical Laboratory with excellent facilities of advanced instruments like Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Nitrogen Analyser, Pressure Membrane Apparatus, besides other normal instruments for physical and chemical analysis.

    Cartography & GIS Section

    Cartography and GIS Section is having excellent facilities of latest GIS softwares, scanning and printing options in CADD Crystal (42") scanner, H.P. Plotter (1 meter), laser colour printer (A3 size) etc. The Section is self sufficient to generate various types of maps and other Cartographic outputs.

     

    Research Co-ordination and Management Unit (RCMU)

    The RCMU is aptly functional in the Centre and responsible for research co-ordination and linkages with different Institutes/Departments, preparation of various kinds of reports, proceedings of meetings, maintenance of project files and RPFs, documentation and maintenance of all scientific and technical activities of the Centre and regular communication with various central/state Departments, researchers and other users.

    Soil Survey Unit

    This unit is looking after the field operations for carrying out different types of soil survey using latest techniques and tools. It is well equipped with all kind of facilities like survey parties, vehicles, soil survey materials, expertise, etc for soil survey and mapping of watersheds, research farms, village, block and districts on different scales.

    Library

    The library of the Centre is well documented having a number of collections of old and new publications in the discipline of soil science and related subjects in general and soil survey and mapping, geomorphology and land use planning in particular. Scientists, students and other researchers can visit and consult the documentations.

    Administrative Unit

    The administrative unit is well established with one Assistant Administrative Officer supported by other staff. It helps in day to day administrative and financial matters of the centre.

    Achievement (Project completed with very brief note)

    Institute Projects

    Soil Resource Mapping of States in Northern Region

    The soil resource mapping on 1:250, 000 scale, of the states in northern region (i.e. Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttrakhand and Uttar Pradesh) (Except Delhi which is on 1:125, 000 scale) in northern region have been completed. The salient achievements are given as below :





     

    1. Soil Resource Mapping for Delhi state on 1:250,000 scale
      The state of Delhi has an area of 1,47,488 ha of which about 47,000 ha (38%) falls under main urban area (Delhi and New Delhi). Land use in Delhi has undergone significant changes during the last 25 years due to ever increasing population, rapid industrialization and urbanization. The soils belong to 2 Orders, 4 Suborders, 4 Great groups, 6 Subgroups and 12 Soil Families. Major soils belong to Inceptisols (81.3%) followed by Entisols (18.7%). The thematic data reveals that about 56% area of the state has soil degradation problems which are mainly due to water erosion (37.5%), salinization (14.4%) and flooding (4%). About 32% area is under main urban area and 12% area has been stabilized by human efforts and under natural conditions. The state has been divided into one Agro-eco region (AER), one Agro-eco Sub-region (AESR) and 4 Agro-ecological zones (AEZ) and 8 agro-ecological units (AEU). The Agro-ecological units are the most homogenous land units of management. Different soil mapping units have been evaluated for their suitability for some important crops like rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pigeon pea, soybean, pea, cabbage and tomato and also forestry. This will be helpful for suggesting alternative land use plans.
    2. Soil Resource Mapping of Haryana state on 1:250,000 scale
      The state of Haryana covers an area of 4.2 m ha and constitutes 1.3 per cent of total geographical area of the country. The net sown area is about 81 per cent of which 71 per cent is irrigated. About 78 per cent of the population is engaged in farming profession. Forests occupy only 3.7 per cent area of the state which is very much inadequate to meet the fodder, fuel and fiber requirement and also to maintain ecological balance. The climate in the state ranges from dry sub humid to hot arid and annual rainfall varies from 300 mm to 1000 mm. The state has 8 Agro-eco zones with variation in growing period from less than 60 days in western part to about 210 days in Siwalik hills and piedmont plains in northern parts of the state.

      The soil map on 1:500,000 scale shows 199 map units of associations of soil families with phases. The soils have been classified into 6 Orders, 15 Sub orders, 11 Great groups, 19 Subgroups and 27 Soil families. Inceptisols are the dominant soils occupying about 58 per cent area followed by Entisols (28%), Aridisols (9%) and Alfisols (2%).

      It is observed that 33 per cent area is under different types of degradation. Erosion constitutes the dominant degradation types (19%) of which 12 per cent is affected by wind erosion and 7 per cent is by water erosion. Chemical degradation is the other important degradation types and covers an area of 10 per cent. About 3 per cent of the area in the state is susceptible to flooding while stoniness affects 1 per cent area. These problems need immediate attention for remedial measures to increase and/or maintain the productivity of soil on a sustainable basis.
    3. Soil Resource Mapping of Himachal Pradesh state on 1:250,000 scale
      The state of Himachal Pradesh covers an area of 5.57 m ha and accounts for 1.7% area of the total geographical area (TGA) of the country. The state is endowed with wide variation in climate, geology, landforms and vegetation which has resulted in the development of a variety of soils. In all there are 95 soil mapping units delineated as the association of soil families. The soils belong to 4 Orders, 6 Sub orders, 12 Great groups, 17 Subgroups and 43 Soil families. The Entisols are dominant soils and cover about 51% area, followed by Inceptisols, Mollisols and Alfisols which cover 20.0, 0.8 and 0.4% of TGA of the state, respectively. The rock outcrops constitute about 28% of the TGA.

      In order to ameliorate the problematic soils, an assessment of degradation status of soils has been made. The data shows 3 M ha are representing 54% of TGA in the state is affected by various soil degradation problems. The most serious is water erosion causing loss of top soil/or terrain deformation, and has affected 52.8% area, stoniness is the next problem covering an area of 1.3 m ha (23%), which is mostly prevalent in the areas common with areas that of water erosion. Water logging and flooding has affected only 0.3% area. The area not fit for agriculture includes rock outcrops, ice caps and glaciers and accounts for 21% of the TGA.

      Majority of soils belong to land capability class VIII (40.6%) and class VII (14.7%) lands which are not suitable for agriculture. Class VIII lands are suited for wild life, recreation and permanent snow cover as protection of water supplies. Class VII lands are fairly suited for grazing, forestry; class VI lands covering an area of 23.1% are well suited for grazing, forestry plantation and limited cultivation. Class IV and III lands cover 14.7 and 6.7%, respectively. These lands are moderately to fairly good lands suited for cultivation of all climatically suited crops.
    4. Soil Resource Mapping of Jammu & Kashmir State on 1:250,000 scale
      The soil resource map of Jammu and Kashmir State on 1:500,000 scale was prepared showing 140 soil units as associations of soil families with dominant phases. The soils belong to 4 Orders, 9 Sub orders, 15 Great Groups, 27 Subgroups and 66 Soil families. The Entisols are dominant soils and cover about 34 per cent area, followed by Inceptisols, Alfisols and Mollisols which cover 6.4, 05 and 0.2 per cent of TGA of the state, respectively. The rock outcrops constitute about 41 per cent of the TGA.

      Several thematic maps, such as soil depth, texture, drainage, available water capacity, erosion, pH, etc. have been generated using the master soil resource map and data base. About 7 million ha (31.6 per cent) area is affected by various soil degradation problems. The most serious problem is of water erosion, causing loss of top soil and/or terrain deformation, and has affected 24.6 per cent area. Wind erosion has been observed in Ladakh and an area of 1.4 m ha constituting about 6.1 per cent of the TGA. Water logging and flooding has affected only 0.9 per cent of TGA.
    5. Soil Resource Mapping of Punjab state on 1:250,000 scale
      The state of Punjab covers an area of 5.03 m ha and constitutes 1.5 per cent of the total geographical area of the country. Of this, 4.2 m ha is net sown with cropping intensity of 177 per cent. Of the cultivated area, about 94 per cent is irrigated with a network of canals and tube wells. Out of the gross cropped area of 7.5 m ha 80 per cent is under rice and wheat cropping system. A fraction of the total area, about 4.6 per cent is under forests which is far below the standard limit of 1/3 area (supposed to be under forest to maintain ecological balance).

      The soils of Punjab developed in alluvium shows varying degrees of development as influenced by soil forming factors, such as climate and conditioned by topography over a period of time. This has a great reflection on soil properties. In all there are 124 soil mapping units delineated at the associations of soil families.

      The soils belong to 4 Orders (Inceptisols, Entisols, Aridisols and Alfisols). The Inceptisols are most dominant covering 50 per cent of the total area, followed by Entisols, Aridisols and Alfisols covering 20 per cent, 16 per cent and 4 per cent of the total area, respectively. The sub groups of Ustepts, Camborthids, Ustipsamments and Ustifluvents are widely distributed in area. The dominant soils are coarse-loamy (52%), followed by fine-loamy (32%), and sandy (12%).

      The study indicated that about 25 per cent of the total area in the state, is degraded and suffers from various problems, such as water erosion (in north-eastern parts), wind erosion (in south-western parts), salinity and sodicity (in the southern south-western, central and north-western sectors), stoniness (in NE sectors) and coarser texture (in SW sectors).
    6. Soil Resource Mapping of Uttar Pradesh (Including Uttrakhand) state on 1:250,000 scale
      The Uttar Pradesh state is located between 230 52' to 310 28' N latitudes and 770 06' to 840 37' longitudes and covers an area of 29.4 m ha and covers nearly 9% area of the country. The state is endowed with wide variations in climate, geology, landforms and vegetation which are reflected in the development of a large variety of soils. The soil mapping units, including rock outcrops, glaciers etc., cover 98.59 % and the miscellaneous lands and habitation comes around 1.41% of the total geographical area (TGA). The soils belong to 5 Orders, 11 Suborders, 22 Great groups, and 44 Subgroups. Inceptisols being the dominant soils occupy nearly 70% followed by Entisols, Alfisols, Vertisols and Mollisols, covering 18.96, 4.89, 1.57 and 0.22% of the TGA, respectively. The rock outcrops constitute 2.17 % of the TGA.

      In order to cater the needs of various user agencies several thematic maps such as soil depth, texture, drainage, available water capacity, erosion, calcareousness, soil pH, salinity/sodicity, etc. have been generated using the soil resource map and database. Nearly 15.32 m ha, representing 52.12% of the TGA in the state is affected by various soil degradation problems induced mainly by human intervention. The most serious problem is of water erosion, causing loss of top soil / or terrain deformation and has affected 11.39 m ha representing 38.69% area including ravinous lands along the river Yamuna., Chambal, Sengar, Kuwari etc., occupying 0.69 m ha in the district Agra, Etawah, Kanpur and Fatehpur districts. . Wind erosion affected 2.12 m ha (0.72%0. Nearly 1.37 m ha land (4.65%) is degraded due to salinity / sodicity whereas 2.35 m ha (7.98%) suffers from water logging and flooding. The area not fit for agriculture, including rock outcrops, glaciers and ice caps accounts for 8.4 m ha, representing 2.86 % of the TGA.

    Soil Erosion status of Northern States (1:250,000 scale)

    The soil erosion status of all the northern states has been prepared in collaboration with CSWCRT&I, Dehradun. The salient achievements of some of the states are given as below :



     

    1. Soil Erosion in Himachal Pradesh
      Soil erosion map of Himachal Pradesh highlights the extent of water induced soil erosion in the state. About 22% of TGA of the state has annual soil loss < 5 t ha-1 and this can be termed as very well within the tolerance limit. About 7 and 5% area are experiencing annual soil loss in the range of 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 t ha-1, respectively. These areas require appropriate conservation measures. About 27% area has soil loss >15 t ha-1 and it includes severe (20-40 t ha-1), very severe (40-80 t ha-1) and extremely severe class (>80 t ha-1) having 3.57, 7.40, 5.74 and 10.08 % area, respectively. These areas require immediate attention and need appropriate soil conservation measures.
    2. Soil Erosion in Haryana
      Soil erosion in Haryana highlights the extent of water induced soil erosion in the state. About 77 and 23% area of the soil erosion is affected by water and wind erosion, respectively. About 53 and 12% area under water and wind erosion, respectively has annual soil loss of < 5 t ha-1 and this can be termed as very well within the tolerance limit. About 23 and 9% area under water and wind erosion, respectively are experiencing annual soil loss in the range of 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 t ha-1, respectively. These areas require appropriate conservation measures. Only 4% area has soil loss >15 t ha-1 and it includes severe (20-40 t ha-1), very severe (40-80 t ha-1). These areas require immediate attention and need appropriate soil conservation measures.
    3. Soil Erosion in Punjab
      Soil erosion in Punjab highlights the extent of water induced soil erosion in the state. About 87 area has annual soil loss of < 5 t ha-1 and this can be termed as very well within the tolerance limit. About 6 and 2% area has annual soil loss in the range of 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 t ha-1, respectively. These areas require appropriate conservation measures. Only 4.02% area has soil loss > 15 t ha-1 and it includes severe (20-40 t ha-1), very severe (40-80 t ha-1). These areas require immediate attention and need appropriate soil conservation measures.
    4. Land Degradation Mapping of Northern States (1:250, 000 scale)
      This project was under taken in collaboration with NRSC Hyderabad. The land degradation status of all the northern states has been generated.

    Soil Resource Mapping at District Level (1:50, 000 scale)

    The status of soil survey and mapping in different districts is given in following tables. The description of soil survey and mapping of some of districts is given as below :








     

    1. Soil Resource Mapping of Bilaspur district (H.P.)
      Soils of Bilaspur district, Himachal Pradesh have been mapped, characterized, classified and interpreted. Nearly 30% of the district have shallow to moderately deep soils and are severely to very severely eroded due to steep slopes and need to be kept under permanent vegetation. About 20% area of the district is suitable for restricted or occasional cultivation due to problem of erosion and limited soil depth and requires moderate soil conservation measures. Hill slopes can be permanently terraced for cultivation due to favorable soil depth and texture constitutes about 7%. Productive soils occurring along valley and gently sloping piedmonts cover about 10% of the total area. In total 37% of total area can be utilized for growing crops like wheat and maize. About 6 per cent of total area can be easily brought under irrigation against the 2.5% at present. Khuds ravines (5%) are suitable or afforestation.
    2. Soil Resource Mapping of Patiala district of Punjab state
      Soil resource inventory of Patiala district has been carried out on 1:50,000 scale. The soil have been grouped into 31 series and mapped as series associations. The soils of the district belong to 2 Orders, 4 Suborders, 7 Great groups and 14 Subgroups. Inceptisols occupy nearly 63.3 per cent while Entisols cover about 33.1 per cent area. Ustepts occupy the major part of the district (57.4%). Amongst the Great groups, Haplustepts occupy the largest area (52.6%). Among the sub groups Fluventic Haplustepts occur in a sizeable area. Fine loamy soils occupy about 35 per cent, coarse loamy 28 per cent and sandy soils 18 per cent rest are fine. Majority of the soils are medium in organic carbon (58%), low in available P (70%), medium in available K (54%), sufficient in S, high in available Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu.

      Nearly 14 per cent lands are grouped into class I, 46 per cent into class II, 31 per cent land into class III, 4 per cent into class IV and 1 per cent into class VI. Soil salinity/sodicity and wetness are the major problems of the soil. Nearly 14% area is suitable for irrigation while 30 per cent is moderately suitable. The ground water is nearly 19 per cent of the area is suitable for irrigation while ground of 7.6 per cent area is suitable only for coarse textured soils. The study indicated that rice-wheat cropping system is sustainable only in about 14 per cent of the TGA, and moderately sustainable in 25 per cent of the TGA.
    3. Dynamic of land use change and its impact on soil properties in Saheed Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr) district, Punjab state
      Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Previously Nawanshahr) is one of the newly created districts of Punjab. It has been carved out from Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur districts, and came to existence as Nawanshahr district on November 7, 1995. It was renamed as Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district. The soils of the district grouped under three Soil Orders, 7 sub-orders, 7 Great groups, and 10 Sub groups. Entisols occupy maximum area (57.8%) followed by Inceptisols (32.1%) and Alfisols (8.6%). Among the sub orders of Entisols Psamments occupy maximum area (21.34%) followed by Fluvents (19.57%) and Ustorthents (10.05%). Similar area was also occupied by Great Groups Ustipsamments, Ustifluvents and Ustorthents, respectively (Table 4.2). At sub group level, Typic Ustipsamments occupy highest area (21.34%), followed by Typic Ustifluvents (14.23%), Typic Ustorthents (10.05%), Typic Fluvaquents (7.14%) and Aquic Ustifluvents (5.04%). In Inceptisols, only one sub order namely Ustepts and Great Group Haplustepts were found to be occurring, while at sub group level Udic Haplustepts occupy 13.73% area followed by Typic Haplustepts (11.30%) and Fluventic Haplustepts (5.78%). Among the Alfisols also only one Sub order i.e. Ustalfs and one great group viz., Haplustalfs were found to be occurring in the area. At subgroup level Udic Haplustalfs cover 4.70% and Typic Haplustalfs 3.98% area.

      Land use dynamics : The dynamic in land use in the district was studied on temporal scale i.e. during years 1959-60, 1996-97 and 2006-07 and its impact on soil properties.

      The data indicate that the area under rice crop increased from 9% in 1959-60 to 30% in 1996-97 and 40% in 2006-07. The area under wheat decreased from about 78% in 1959-60 to 45% in 1996-97 and 63% in 2006-07. The decrease in acreage was due to reorganization of district by merging non-wheat areas during 1996-97. On the other hand the area under maize crop was deceased from 42% during 1959-60 to about 11% in 1996-97 which is same even during 2006-07. The area under sugarcane crop also decreased from 18% in 1959-60 to 11% in 1996-97 and 4% during 2006-07. The increase in area under rice crop is mainly on the expense of decrease of area under maize crop in the corresponding period. However decrease in area under sugarcane crop may be due to non-performing of sugarcane mills.

      Impact of land use Change on Soil Properties : The change of land use has affected soil properties. Build of O.C. in rice –wheat areas and formation of compact layer below plough layer has been observed. Also decrease of pH and EC was noticed in these areas.
    4. Soil Resource Mapping of Mathura district of U.P. state
      In Mathura district 20 soil series have been identified and mapped into 35 soil series associations. The soils belong to 2 orders, 5 suborders, 5 great groups and 11 soil families. In The soil resource information has been interpreted to generate various thematic maps in GIS such as Soil Erosion, Land Capability, Land Irrigability, Salt Affected Soils, and Flooding etc. Besides, soil-site suitability of various crops in different farming systems has been generated. Nearly 70 per cent lands are grouped into class II, 9 per cent land into class III, 15 per cent into class IV and 0.2 per cent into class VII. Soil salinity/sodicity, wetness and erosion are the major problems of the soil.
    5. Soil Resource Mapping of Faizabad district of U.P. state
      Firozabad district of Uttar Pradesh (28o 24’ to 27o 0’ N and 70o 11’ to 77o 8” E) occupies an area of 2.37 lakh hectare. It has four tehsils namely Firozabad, Tundla, Shikohabad and Jasrana. It has been broadly divided into seven physiographic units viz. Nearly level alluvial plain, Aeo-fluvial plain, Level alluvial plain with concave relief, Old flood plain (high water level), Ravinous/gullied land, Meandering active flood plain and Recent flood plain of Sirsa river and its tributaries.

      The soils of the district belong to two Orders, 4 Suborders, 5 Great groups and 7 Sub-groups. Inceptisols occupy nearly 79.3 per cent while Entisols cover about 17.2 per cent area. Ustepts occupy the major part of the district (72.3%) followed by Fluvents (12.8%). Amongst the Great groups, Haplustepts occupy the largest area (63.4%) followed by Ustifluvents (12.8%) and Calciustepts (8.9%). Seven Sub-groups have been identified in the district. Amongst the Sub groups, Typic Haplustepts occur in a sizeable area (34.5%) followed by Udic Haplustepts (19.2%), Typic Ustifluvents (12.8%) and Natric Fluventic Haplustepts (9.7%). Fine-loamy soils occupy largest area followed by coarse-loamy soils.

      Nearly 60 per cent lands are grouped into class II, 20 per cent land into class III, 9 per cent into class IV and 8 per cent into class VI. Soil salinity/sodicity, wetness and erosion are the major problems of the soil.

      Nearly 44 per cent of the area is suitable for rice, 72 per cent for wheat, 55 per cent for pigeon-pea, 55 per cent for sugarcane, 46 per cent for potato, 58 per cent for mustard and 57 per cent for bajra. Nearly 58 per cent area is suitable for fruit crops like guava, ber, pomegranate while about 33 per cent is suitable for mango. Majority of the soils of the district are medium in organic carbon, available P and available K content.

      About 11 per cent of the total area of the district suffers from erosion. Soils of nearly 26 per cent of the TGA are affected by strong sodicity with varying degree of salinity. Soils of nearly 26 per cent of total area are suffering from imperfect to poor drainage conditions. Nearly 6 percent area is susceptible to moderate to severe flooding in rainy season.
    6. Soil Resource Mapping of Shahjahanpur district of U.P. state
      Shahjahanpur district 18 soil series have been identified and mapped into 25 soil series associations. The soil resource information has been interpreted to generate various thematic maps in GIS such as Soil Erosion, Land Capability, Land Irrigability, Salt Affected Soils, Flooding etc. Besides, soil-site suitability of various crops in different farming systems have been generated.
    7. Soil Resource Mapping of Sultanpur district of U.P. state
      The soils of the district have been classified into 2 Orders, 4 Sub-orders, 6 Great groups and 11 Sub-groups. Among the orders, Inceptisols occupy about 88 per cent of TGA characterized by presence of altered Bw horizon and calcic horizon and ochric epipedon. Among the Sub-orders, Ustepts occupy the largest area (80 %) followed by Psamments (6.9 %). Among the Great groups , Haplustepts contribute the largest area (74 %) followed by Halaquepts (12%), Ustipsamments (7%) and Calciustepts (6.4 %). Eleven Sub-groups have been identified in the district. Typic Haplustepts occupy the largest area in the district followed by Anthraquic Haplustepts, Typic Ustipsamments and Aeric/ Typic Halaquepts . Among the soil families, fine- loamy soils are dominant followed by coarse-loamy soils.
    8. Soil Resource Mapping of Mainpuri district of U.P. state
      Soil map of Mainpuri district has been digitized and finalized. The soils belong to 3 orders, 6 sub orders, 8 great groups, 12 subgroups and 18 family classes. Inceptisols are the dominant soils (84.43%) followed by Entisols (12.82%) and Alfisols (1.23%). Among sub orders Ustepts occupy the largest (51.25%) area in the district followed by Aquepts (33.18%), Orthents (6.81%), Fluvents (4.04%), Psamments (1.97%) and least Aqualfs (1.23%).Among the great groups Haplustepts occupies the largest area (40.84%) followed by Halaquepts (30.43%), Calciustepts (10.41%), Ustorthents (6.81%), Ustifluvents (4.04%), Endoaquepts (2.75%),Ustipsamments (1.97%) and least area by Natraqualfs (1.23%). Among the sub groups Typic Haplustepts (33.30%) having major area followed by Aeric Halaquepts (30.43%), Typic Ustorthents (6.81 %), Typic Calciustepts (6.05%), Natric Calciustepts (4.36 %), Natric Haplustepts (4.22 %),Typic Ustifluvents (4.04%), Aeric Endoaquepts (2.75 %), Calcic Haplustepts (2.53 %), Typic Ustipsamments (1.97 %), Fluventic Aeric Natraqualfs (1.23 %) and Oxyaquic Haplustepts (0.79 %) are the dominant sub groups in the district.
    9. Soil Resource Mapping of Moradabad district of U.P. state
      Soil map of the Moradabad district has been finalized. 23 soil series have been identified and mapped as 41 soil series associations. The report has been submitted. The soils have been classified into 2 orders viz. Inceptisols (71.78 %) and Entisols (23.81 %). They have been further classified unto 3 sub-orders (Ustepts, Fluvents and Psamments) and 3 Great-groups viz. Haplustepts (71.78 %), Ustifluvents (18.25 %) and Ustipsamments (5.56 %). The soils have been further classified into 4 sub-groups viz. Typic Haplustepts (63.67 %), Oxyaquic Haplustepts (8.11 %), Typic Ustifluvents (18.25 %) and Typic Ustipsamments (5.56 %). An assessment of the various soil characteristics shows that about 68.64 % of the soils are well drained followed by 13.29 % moderately well drained, 8.11 % imperfectly drained, 54.86 % coarse loamy and 35.18 % fine loamy soils. About 75.4 % of the district was slightly eroded and 90.76 % of the TGA was neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction.

    Externally Funded Projects





     

    1. Soil Database for Khulgad Watershed Development in Almora District, Uttarakhand
      Detailed soil survey of the Khulgad watershed was carried using remote sensing data on 1:12:500 scale covering 3278ha. Soil-physiography relationship was established. The soils were mapped at phase level. In all, 24 soil series were identified and mapped into 55 phases. The soils were characterized with respect to their morphological features, physical, chemical, mineralogical characteristics and classified as per keys to Soil Taxonomy.

      Soil resource data was interpreted to assess their problems and potentials. The soils were grouped into eight land capability classes (I to VIII) depending upon the severity of problems. About 14 per cent area can be put under cultivation with slight to moderate restrictions and about 24 per cent area is suitable for restricted cultivation with intensive soil-water conservation measures. Rest of the area is non-arable due to severe to very severe limitations and can be put under forestry, grasslands and grazing lands. About 14 per cent area is under rock outcrops with little soil is suitable for wild life and tourist spots etc. Less than 7 per cent area is suitable for irrigation due to very severe limitation of soil and topography.
    2. Soil Resource Distribution, Characterization, Evaluation and Constraints for Cotton Based Cropping System in Irrigated Ecosystem of North India–A Case Study of Sirsa District of Haryana
      Sirsa district of Haryana (29o14' to 30oN latitude and 74o29' to 75o18' E longitude) occupies an area of 4.27 lakh hectare. It has four tehsils. It has been broadly divided into six physiographic units viz. recent flood plain of Ghaggar with susceptibility to flooding, flood plain with filled up depressions, nearly level old flood plain, old flood plain with occasional sand dunes/reclaimed sand dunes and low land area.

      Soil resource inventory has been carried out on 1:50,000 scale using remote sensing data. The soils have been grouped into 15 series and mapped as 20 series associations. The soils of the district belong to two orders, 5 Suborders, 5 Greatgroups and 8 subgroups. Aridisols occupy nearly 62 per cent while Entisols cover about 37.5 per cent area. Cambids occupy the major part of the district (53.2%) followed by Psamments (31.9%), Fluvents (5.0%) and Calcids (8.8%). Amongst the Greatgroups, Haplocambids occupy the largest area (53.2%) followed by Torripsamments (31.9%), Haplocalcids (8.8%) and Fluvents (5.0%). Amongst the Subgroups, Ustic Haplocambids occur in a largest area followed by Ustic Torripsamments and Fluventic Haplocambids. Coarse loamy soils occupy the largest area (44.6%) followed by sandy soils and fine loamy soils.

      Nearly 33 per cent lands are grouped into class III, 34 per cent into class IV, 25 per cent land into class V, 7 per cent into class VI and less than 1 per cent into class VII. The climate, erosion, wetness, coarse texture and salinity/sodicity are major problems of the soil. Nearly 5% area is highly suitable for irrigation while 28 and 33 per cent area is suitable and moderately suitable, respectively. Rest of the area is rated as marginally suitable or unsuitable for irrigation due to severe topographic, soil and drainage problems.
    3. Land Resource Inventory for Farm Planning in Lakhan Majra Block of Maham - Rohtak Tehsil, Rohtak District, Haryana
      Study area is a part of Lakhan Majra block in tehsil and district Rohtak, Haryana state. It lies between 28o 55' 26? to 29o 05’ 56? N latitudes and 76o 28’ 25? to 76o 35’ 35? E to longitudes Total area : 7409 ha. It comprises of seven villages, viz., Nandal, Chiri, Kharak Chungla, Gurauthi, Titauli, Sasrauli and Sunderpur. It is bounded by districts Sonepat in North, and Jind in North west. On the basis of detailed soil survey, 11 soil series were identified in the study area and mapped into their 18 phases. Among major soil problems, soil erosion by wind is restricted to sand dunes areas. Soils of nearly 22 % of TGA are suffering from imperfect to poor drainage conditions. Soils of nearly 14% of TGA are affected by strong salinity. About 10.2 % area affected by seasonal water logging due to low-lying lands and some areas are also affected by fluctuating water table or persistence of high water table. Majority of soils (51%) are moderately alkaline, slightly saline, high in CaCO3 (67%), low in organic carbon (56 %) , medium in available phosphorus (56%) and available potassium (52%). Entire area is low in nitrogen. Majority of soils of the block are low to medium in fertility. About 41 % area is under multi-nutrient deficient. LCC: Nearly 50 % lands are grouped into class II, 32 % into class III, 13 % into class IV and 1 % into class VI. Soil salinity/sodicity, drainage and erosion are the major problems of the soil. LIC: Nearly 24% area is very suitable, 27 % suitable, 30% moderately suitable and 7.8% is marginally suitable for irrigation and dominant limitations are soil characteristics (texture, salinity/sodicity, drainage and topography). Soil Suitability for crops: Nearly 48 % area is suitable for wheat, 40 % for rice, 48 % for maize and pearl millet, 57% for sorghum and mustard, 48% for chickpea and green gram, , 20% for pigeon pea, 46% for sugarcane, and 33% potato. Nearly 48 % area is suitable for vegetables, 35 to 50 % area for fruit crops like guava (53%), pomegranate (48%), papaya (39%) citrus (35%), amla and ber (48%).
    4. Evaluation of soil suitability of the proposed site for polo ground at Nicholson Area, Delhi
      One hundred hectares area was evaluated reported that 64% area could be utilized for plantation while 30% area can be used for aquatic activities due to its low lying topography and underlying CaCO3 concretions.
    5. Soil Survey & Land Evaluation of the proposed National Botanical Garden at Rohini, Delhi
      The landscape and the physic-chemical properties of the 3 identified soils revealed that the site is suitable for developing a pologround. Follow up techniques for its subsequent maintenance has also been recommended.
    6. Soil Correlation of Northern States
      Soil correlation activity was strengthened through coordination and collaborating with SLUSI, New Delhi and State Agricultural Departments and SAUs. Visited Dept. of Agril. and RSAC-U.P., Lucknow, PAU Ludhiana, PRSC, Ludhiana, CSWCRT&I Station Chandigarh, Dept of Wasteland Development Punjab, Chandigarh HPKKV Palampur and GBPUAT Pantnagar, VPKAS, Almora, Dept. of Agril, Govt. of Uttarakhand, Dehradun. The series identified in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir were sent to Soil Correlation Activity Committee, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur. After finalization 10 soil series have been entered in the National Register as mentioned in the table. Some series are in the process of finalization for entry into the Register.

      State Soil series entered in National Register Year
      Himachal Pradesh 1. Ropri serial No. 235 State Code HP001
      2. Dehra serial No. 236 state code HP002
      3. Bhager serial No. 254 State code HP005
      4. Hatwar serial No. 255 State code HP006
      5. Kelol serial No. 256 State Code HP007
      6. Rajpura serial No. 257 State Code HP008
      2009
      2009
      2010
      2010
      2010
      2010
      Jammu & Kashmir 1. Khitoli serial No. 231 State Code JK002
      2. Aharbal serial No. 232 State Code JK003
      2009
      2009
      Uttar Pradesh 1. Shergarh serial No. 239 State Code UP004
      2. Nagaria serial No. 240 State Code UP005
      2009
      2009
    Ongoing Projects

    Institute Projects

    1. Dynamics of land use and its impact on soil development in Nawanshahr district, Punjab state.
    2. Dynamics of land use and its impact on soil development in Jalandhar district, Punjab state
    3. NAIP project “Georeferenced soil information system for land use planning and monitoring soil and land quality for agriculture
    4. Soil correlation in Northern Region
    5. Soil resource mapping of Sultanpur district (U.P.) for perspective land use planning
    6. Development of district level land use plan for Almora district, Uttarakhand under hill and mountain ecosystem
    7. Soil resources – their assessment for horticulture in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh
    8. Indian soil information system (ISIS) (1:250,000 scale) – A geo portal for regional scale land use planning
    9. District soil information system (DSIS) (1:50,000 scale) for district level land use planning (50 districts)
    10. Land use planning for sustainable crop production in salt-affected soils to improve the livelihood security of the farmers in Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh
    11. Land use dynamics in rural-urban interface of NCR for regional planning – a case study of NCT-Delhi and Haryana sub-regions
    12. Soil Resource Inventory of IARI Farm, New Delhi
    13. Preparation of District –Wise soil maps of northern states for Contingency Plans for Weather Aberrations in India.
    14. Studies on soil minerals and their genesis in selected Benchmark soils representing different agro-eco-sub regions of India
    15. Assessment and mapping of salt-affected soils using remote sensing and GIS in southern districts of Haryana
    16. Land use planning of Buraka Micro-watershed in Mewat district of Haryana under Irrigated Ecosystem for integrated development

     

    Capacity Building

    Trainings organized-Institutional

    • Soil Resource inventory and land evaluation
    • Geographic Information System (GIS) for land resource data management.
    • Land evaluation for command area development

    Trainings organized- Sponsored

    • 21 days Training Programme on Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Soil Resource Mapping towards Land Use Planning, sponsored by NNRMS, ISRO, Department of Space Govt. of India, during January 16 to February 5, 2007, at NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre Delhi.
    • 21 days Training Programme on Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Soil Resource Mapping towards Land Use Planning, sponsored by NNRMS, ISRO, Department of Space Govt. of India, during January 16 to February 5, 2013, at NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre Delhi.

     

    Linkages
    • NBSS & LUP-DST
    • NBSS & LUP-CSWCR & TI Dehradoon
    • NBSS & LUP-IARI
    • NBSS & LUP-UPRSAC Lucknow
    • NBSS & LUP – NRSC Hyderabad
    • NBSS & LUP – NBAIM Mau
    • NBSS & LUP – CSSRI Karnal
    • NBSS & LUP- WTC –ER – Bhubaneswar
    •  
    Future Thrust Areas

    Our future plan encompasses activities related to

    • Soil survey and mapping of soils of northern states.
    • To prepare perspective (at state and district level) and participatory (at village / micro watershed level) land use planning.
    • To conduct and promote research in areas of pedology, soil survey, land evaluation and land use planning.
    • National network land use planning projects at district and micro watershed level.
    • Soil mineralogy and fundamental research of Benchmark soils of northern region.
    • Monitoring Soil Health of Benchmark soils of northern region.
    • Inter-disciplinary / inter-institutional research projects
    • Status and monitoring of Soil degradation status of northern states
    • Carbon sequestration studies in Indo-Gangetic Plains and North-Western Himalayas.
    • Development of Decision Support System for land use planning taking into consideration socio-economic/environmental aspects along with climate change and bio-physical parameters.
    • Peri-urban land use dynamics in NCR Delhi.
    • Strengthening of Soil Survey Coordination Committees for reviving soil correlation (Central and State Soil Survey Departments and SAUs)
    Major Publications (Research papers/Reports/Technical Bulletins)

    Research Papers

    1. Sharma B.D., Sidhu G.S., Sarkar, D. and Kukal S.S. (2012). Soil Organic Carbon, Phosphorous and Potassium Status in Rice-Wheat Soils of Different Agro-climatic Zones in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43: 1-19.
    2. Jat R.S., Meena, H.N., Singh A.L., Surya, Jaya N. and Misra J.B. (2011). Weed Management in Groundnut (Arachia Hypogaea L.). In India – A Review. Agri. Reviews, 32 (3): 155-171.
    3. Sidhu, G.S., Sharma, A.K., Samui, R.C., Surya, J.N, Kamble, H. Kalpana and Sharma J.P. (2011). Source and quality of irrigation water in different agro-climatic zones of Upper, Middle and Lower Gangetic Plains Region. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 81: 181-84.
    4. Singh, S.K., Pandey, C.B., Sidhu G.S., Sarkar Dipak and Sagar R. (2011). Concentration and stock of carbon in the soils affected by land uses and climates in the Western Himalaya, India. Catena 87: 78-89.
    5. Sidhu, G.S. and Sharma, B.D. (2010). Diethylenetriaminerpentaacetic acid-extractable micronutrients status in soil under rice-wheat system and their relationship with soil properties in different agro-climatic zones of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41 (1): 29-51.
    6. Sarkar, Dipak, Chaturvedi, A. and Mahapatra, S.K.(2009) New Vistas in Perspective Land Use Planning. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 57, 587-600.
    7. Walia, C.S., Singh, S.P., Dhankar, R.P., Ram, J., Kamble, K.H. and Katiyar, D.K. (2009). Watershed characterization and soil resource mapping for land use planning using remote sensing and GIS. Current Science, 98:1 (Special Section: Himalayan Bio-geo Databases).
    8. Jaya Niranjana Surya, Gajbhiye, K.S. Gaikwad, S.T., Thayalan S. and Gowande S.N. (2008). Evaluation of land quality indicator for soybean cultivation in eastern part of Maharshtra. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 56, No.3. pp 313-316.
    9. Mookerjee, P, Chakravarti, N.V.K. Singh R.V., Bahal, R., Pathak, H., Mahapatra, S. K., Tyagi, S.K. and Datta, P.S. (2008). Qualitative approach for on farm water conservation in a semi-arid region. Journal of Water Management 16:80-86.
    10. Naidu, L.G.K., Ramamurthy, V. Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Sidhu, G.S. and Raj Kumar (2008). Soil-based fertilizer recommendations a rational approach. Indian J. of Fertilizers, 4(7):47-50 & 53-56.
    11. Jaya Niranjana Surya, Singh, S.P., Jat R.S., Sharma, J.P. and Prasad Kamta (2007). Land evaluation and management of some soisl of Indo-Gangetic Plains in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 35:50-54
    12. Martin, D., Mahapatra, S.K. Singh, S.P. and Dhankar, R.P. (2007) Landform analysis of Warm Humid Kumaon Himalayas using IRS-ID data for development of mountainous lands. Indian Journal of Remote Sensing. 35 (1), 92-96.
    13. Sidhu, G.S., Rana, K.P.C., Lal, Tarsem, Mahapatra, S. K. Verma, T.P., Rao, R.V.S., J. Ram, Singh, S.K. and Singh, S.P. (2007). Soils of Himachal Pradesh inventory for land use planning. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. 55(2):203-208.
    14. Sidhu, G.S., Rana, K.P.C., Lal, Tarsem, Mahapatra, S.K., Verma, T.P. and Rao, R.V.S. (2007). Soils of Himachal Pradesh – land capability classification and assessment of soil degradation status for suggested land use plan. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. 55:233-240.
    15. Sidhu, G.S., Sharma, S.K. Sharma, B.D. Chaudhary, M.K. Mukhopadhaya, S. Mehla, D.S., Sharma, J.P. and Kamble Kalpana (2007). Sources and quality of irrigation water in different agro-climatic zones of Trans-Gangetic plain region. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. 77(9):609-10.
    16. Yadav, R.P., Sachdev, C.B., Sidhu, G.S. and Mahapatra, S.K. (2007). Inter-relationship of very fine sand with other textural fractions in soils of North Western India for Erosion Assessment. Agropedology 17(2):125-130.
    17. Maity Ashis, Ahmed Nayan and Mahapatra, S.K. (2006). Temporal changes of IARI farm soils under mechanized and intensive cultivation. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 54(4):475-480.
    18. Sidhu, G.S., Sharma, S.K., Sharma, A.K., Sammui, R.C., Mukhopadhaya, S., Sharma, J.P., Khushwant Singh, Swaranam, T.P. and Kamble Kalpana (2006). Status of available potassium in rice-wheat system areas in different agro-climatic zones of Indo-Gangetic Plain. Journal of Potassium Research: 22.
    19. Sitanggang, M., Rao, Y.S., Ahmed, N. and Mahapatra, S.K. (2006). Characterization and classification of soils in watershed area of Shikohpur, Gurgaon district, Haryana. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 54(1):106-110.
    20. Jaya Niranjana Surya, Gaikawad, S.T., Gajbhiye, K.S. and S. Thayalan (2005). Clay minerals composition in some soils of eastern part of Maharashtra. Clay Research 24(2):159-167.
    21. Mahapatra, S.K., Ram, J., Singh, S.P. and Dhankar, R.P. (2005). Soil Resource inventory of warm humid Kumaon Himalayas for sustainable land use. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 53(3):390-393.
    22. Rao R.V.S, Mahapatra, S.K., Verma T.P. and Lal Tarsem (2005). Utilization of remote sensing data for delineation of ravinous areas of Etawah district. Journal of Soil & Water Cons, 4(3 & 4):125-130.
    23. Yadav, R.P., Mahapatra, S.K., Aggarwal, R.K., Singh, S.P. and Samra, J.S. (2005) Erodibilty of major soils of Delhi, Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 53(2):178-183.
    24. Mahapatra, S.K., Lal Tarsem, Ram Gopal and Rana K.P.C. (2003) Studies on Soil variability in different landscapes of National Capital Territory Delhi. Indian Agric., 1 & 2:85-93.
    25. Sidhu, G.S. and Ghosh, S.K. (2003). Relationship of total potassium with other alkali/alkaline elements in soils developed on different landforms in south Haryana. Journal of Potassium Research. 19:22-28.
    26. Vadivelu, S. Baruah, U., Bhaskar, B.P., Thampi, C.J. Sarkar, D., Walia, C.S., Nayak, D.C. and Maji, A.K. (2003). Land use plan for Jorhat district of Assam state. Agropedology 13(1):1-10.
    27. Jaya Niranjane Surya, T. Sengupta and V.M. Ghare (2002). Integrated Approach for resource development using remote sensing. A case of Dhand watershed. Maharashtra, Journal of Agrophysics, 2(1):57-61.
    28. Sidhu, G.S., Walia, C.S., Lal, Tarsem, Rana, K.P.C., Saxena, R.K. Verma, K.S. and Mahapatra, S.K. (2002). Soil resource mapping of Ludhiana district, Punjab state by using remote sensing technique. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, India 1(4):312-317.
    29. Jaya Niranjane Surya. Raja. and S.T. Gaikawad (2001). Fine sand mineralogy of soils developed over sandstone and quartzite-schist near Umrer and Bhivapur, Maharashtra. Journal of Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 49(3):489-493.
    30. Saharan, Neelam, Rattan, R.K., Sidhu, G.S. and Rana, K.P.C. (2001). Sulphur fertility status of the soils of Himachal Pradesh. Fertilizer News, 46(9):49-53.
    31. Verma T.P., Rao R.V.S., Mahapatra, S.K. and Lal Tarsem (2001). Study of soil variability across different landscapes in Etawah district, Uttar Pradesh. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci., 49(2):309-315.
    32. Jaya Niranjane Surya, Puranik R.B., Zadode, S.D. and S.D. Deshmukh (2000). Effect of wheat straw incorporation on yield of green gram and wheat, soil fertility and micro biota. Journal of Maharashtra Agril. Univ. 25(2):158-160.
    33. Mahapatra, S.K. Rana, K.P.C., Sidhu, G.S. and Walia, C.S. (2000). Assessment of Degradation status of Jammu and Kashmir soils for their amelioration. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48:577-581.
    34. Mahapatra, S.K., Rana, K.P.C., Sidhu, G.S. and Walia, C.S. (2000). Assessment of soil degradation status of Jammu and Kashmir state for their amelioration. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. 48(3):577-580.
    35. Mahapatra, S.K., Rana, K.P.C., Sidhu, G.S., Walia, C.S. and Lal, Tarsem (2000). Characterization and classification of the soils of different physiographic units in the sub-humid eco-system of Kashmir region. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. 48(3):572-576.
    36. Rao R.V.S., Verma, T.P. and Mahapatra S.K. (2000). An inventory of natural resources for Land use planning in ravinous area of Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains, India. Mendel NET 2000(2):97-100.
    37. Sidhu, G.S., Das, T.H., Singh, R.S., Sharma, R.K. Jadaon, S.P.S. Ravishankar, T. and Rao, B.R.M. (2000). Soil resource inventory of watershed for land use planning – A GIS approach. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 28(1):22-29.
    38. Sidhu, G.S., Manjaiah, K.M. and Ghosh, S.K. (2000). Pedological variabilities and classification of some dominant soils of Aravallies-Yamuna river transect in semiarid tract of Haryana. Agropedology. 10(1):80-87.
    39. Walia, C.S., Rao, Y.N. and Rao, Y.S. (2000). Micromorphology of endopedons of some soils of Bundelkhand region. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48:813-818.

    Bulletins/Technical Reports/Soil Survey Reports/Resource Atlases

    1. Sidhu, G.S., Sharmistha, Pal., Tiwari, A.K., Sarkar, Dipak and Sharda, V.N. (2012). Soil erosion status of Punjab. Bulletin No. 151. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur.
    2. Sachdev C.B., Yadav, R.P., Sidhu, G. S., Sharma, J.P., Singh, S. P., Tiwari, A.K., Aggarwal, R.K., Sarkar, Dipak and Sharda, V.N. (2011). Soil Erosion in Haryana. Technical Bulletin No. 149 NBSS&LUP, Nagpur.
    3. Sidhu, G.S., Yadav, R.P. Singh, S.P., Sharma, J.P., Aggarwal, R.K, Tiwari, A.K., Gajbhiye, K.S. Sarkar, Dipak and Sharda, V.N. (2010). Soil erosion status of Himachal Pradesh. Bulletin No. 132. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur Publ. pp 1-53.
    4. Soil Resource Mapping of Mathura District, Uttar Pradesh for Perspective Land Use Planning (2010). NBSS Bulletin. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp 1-156.
    5. Walia, C.S., Martin, D., Singh, S. P., Dhankar, R. P.,  Dharam Singh, Katiyar, D. K and Sarkar, Dipak (2010) Soil Resource Distribution, Characterization and Evaluation for Cotton Based Cropping Systems in Irrigated Eco-system in Northern India.
    6. Walia, C.S., Surya,J.N.,Dhankar,R.P., Sharma, J.P. and Sarkar, Dipak (2010) Generation Of Soil Database For Khulgad Watershed Development   In Almora District, Uttarakhand (D S T Funded Project).
    7. Soil Resource Mapping of Firozabad District, Uttar Pradesh for Perspective Land Use Planning. (2009) NBSS Bulletin. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp 1-107.
    8. Soil Resource Mapping of Mainpuri District, Uttar Pradesh for Perspective Land Use Planning (2009). NBSS Bulletin. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp 1-170.
    9. Soil Resource Mapping of Moradabad District, Uttar Pradesh for Perspective Land Use Planning. (2009) NBSS Bulletin. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp 1-159.
    10. Soil Resource Mapping of Shahjahanpur District, Uttar Pradesh for Perspective Land Use Planning (2009). NBSS Bulletin. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp 1-140.
    11. NBSS&LUP (2008). Soils for optimizing land use in Kamrup district of Assam. NBSS Technical Report No. 604. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur.
    12. Walia, C.S., Singh, S.P., Dhankar, R.P., Ram, J. Kamble, K.H. and Katiyar, D. K. (2006). Soil data base for Moolbari watershed development and ecological restoration in Lesser Himalayas. NBSS Publ. 909. Tech. Bulletin. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, India. Pp70.
    13. Jaya N. Surya, S.P. Singh, R.P. Dhankar and J.P. Sharma (2005). An Agro-ecological approach to National Agricultural Research System of India. NBSS Tech. Bull No. 883.
    14. Sen, T.K., Ram Babu, Nayak, D.C. Maji, A.K., Walia, C.S. Baruah, U. and Sarkar, D. (2005). Soil erosion of Assam, NBSS Publ. No. 118, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India. pp 41.
    15. Singh, S.P., Walia, C.S., Dhankar, R.P. and Ram, J. (2005). Soil resource of Amritsar district, Punjab for land use planning. NBSS Publ. 882 Tech. Bulletin. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India.
    16. Sidhu, G.S. Sharma, J.P., Singh, S.P. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). Soil Series of Himachal Pradesh. Bulletin No. 91. NBSS&LUP, Publ. pp 1-145.
    17. Singh, S.P., Ram, J., Walia, C.S., Sachdev, C.B., Rana, K.P.C., Sehgal, J., Velayutham, M. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). Soils of Uttar Pradesh for optimizing land use. Executive Summary. NBSS Publ. 68 (Soils of India Series), NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India.
    18. Soil Series of Delhi State, NBSS Publ. No.112, 2004.
    19. Vadivelu, S., Baruah, U., Bhaskar, B.P., Mandal, C., Sarkar, D. Walia, C.S. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). Soil resource atlas of Jorhat district of Assam. NBSS Publ. 107. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India.
    20. Walia C.S., Singh, S.P., Dhankar, R.P., Jagat Ram and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). Soil resource data of Patiala district of Punjab for perspective land use planning. NBSS Publ. 795, Technical Bulletin, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India.
    21. Walia, C.S. and Singh, S.P. (2003). Soil and land use for watershed development in Himachal Pradesh. Submitted to Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi and ICAR Report No. 637.
    22. NBSS&LUP (Core Group Member of Publication) (2002). Soil Map of India (1:1 million scale). Bulletin No. 94. NBSS&LUP Publ. pp 1-130.
    23. Soil Survey and Land Evaluation of Shikohpur village, Gurgaon district, Haryana. NBSS Report No.583, 2002.
    24. Rana, K. P. C. Rana, Walia, C.S., Sidhu, G.S., Singh, S.P., Velayutham, M and Sehgal J. (2000). Soils of Jammu & Kashmir for optimizing land use. Executive Summary. Bulletin No. 62(b). NBSS&LUP, Publ. pp 1-71+ xvi.
    25. Soil Resource Map of Delhi and report on "Soils of Delhi - their kind, distribution, characterization and interpretation for optimizing land use". NBSS Publ. No. 72, 2000.
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