Remote Sensing Application (RSA)

    About the Division

    The Division of Remote sensing Applications was established in 1985 as research division in the headquarters of NBSS&LUP, Nagpur. The aim is to use the latest satellite technology in soil resource inventory, soil degradation and land ecological studies for land resource






     

    Mandate
    • Applied and basic research in application of remote sensing in soils and agriculture
    • Post-Graduate teaching and research
    • Conducting trainings in applications of remote sensing in soils and agriculture
    List of Scientists
    Name Designation Discipline E-mail  
    Dr. Rajeev Srivastava Pr. Scientist & Head Soil Science rajeev@nbsslup.ernet.in View Biodata
    Dr. M.S.S. Nagaraju Principal Scientist Soil Science nraju@nbsslup.ernet.in View Biodata
    Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy Principal Scientist Geography obireddy@nbsslup.ernet.in View Biodata
    Sh. Nirmal Kumar Scientist Agril. Physics nirmalkumar@nbsslup.ernet.in View Biodata
    Dr. Sudipta Chattaraj Scientist Soil Phy./Soil & Water Consv. chattaraj.iari@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr.(Ms) Nisha Sahu Scientist Soil Science nishasahu5@gmail.com View Biodata
    Shri Benukantha Dash Scientist L&WME benukantha@yahoo.co.in  
    Infrastructure
     

     

    The division has the setup of modern infrastructure for visual and digital interpretation of satellite data. It has remote sensing and GIS softwares viz. ILWIS, Geomatica, ENVI, ERDAS, TNT-MIPS, Definiens Professional (Ecognition) and ArcGIS. For spectroscopy studies, the Division has ASD Spectroradiometer for soil reflectance measurement between 350-2500 nm. The division also has modest soil analysis laboratory.




     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    • GIS Section has setup with state of art modern hardware and software infrastructure. The major GIS hardware facilities available in the laboratory are high-end computers, A0 size high-resolution scanner, Design Jet plotter, Colour laser printer and GPS.
    • The major GIS and Image analysis software's are available in the laboratory are SPANS ver. 7.0, AGROMA ver. 7.0, PAMAP ver 5.0, IDRISI ver. 2.0, ERDAS Imagine ver. 9.3, ER Mapper ver. 7.2, Arc GIS Desktop ver. 10, Geomatica ver. 10.0.1, ecognition ver. 8.7 and TNT mips ver. 7.7 and ScanEX ver. 3.0, Software’s like Adobe Photoshop and Coral Ventura are being used for reports generation.




     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division

    Hardware

    • Workstation
    • Server
    • Scanner (A0)
    • Scanner (A3) flat bed
    • Plotter (A0)
    • Digital Xerox Machine
    • Kodak i1420 Scanner

    Software

    • Geomedia Professional Ver. 3
    • Auto-CAD Map 2000
    • Micro Station
    • ARC GIS Ver. 9.2
    • Geomatica Ver. 10.2
    • Definiens Developer Ver. 7.0
    • CAD Script
    • Coreldraw 11
    • TNT Mips Ver. 7.4
    • R to V
    • Data Management Software

    Other Facilities (Centralized)

    • Map digitization, scanning and plotting
    • Map finalization and their clearance (SOI and MOD)
    • Designing and Art work (Publication, Displays etc.)
    • Xeroxing

     

    Achievement (Project completed with very brief note)

     

     

     

    The Division of Remote Sensing Applications is engaged in conducting research on application of satellite remote sensing data for soil resource inventory, soil degradation assessment, watershed characterization and development of soil spectral library.

    Institute Projects









    • Image interpretation for soil resource mapping of states (1:250,000) and of India (1:1M)
      Soil resource mapping of India was initiated in 1986 using a 3-tier approach comprising image interpretation; field mapping and laboratory analysis and cartography and printing. One hundred seventy six false colour composites (FCC’s) imagery of LANDSAT MSS and IRS 1B data on 1:250,000 scale were interpreted visually to prepare pre-field physiography cum photomorphic maps considering, geology, terrain, environmental conditions, landscape elements and image characteristics.
      An unified open ended physiographic legend for image interpretation was developed. Twelve physiographic regions and 43 sub-physiographic regions were delineated. Further subdivisions were made on the basis of different landscape elements. Boundaries of physiographic units were transferred on Survey of India (SOI) toposheets and were then used by the Regional Centres as a base for soil mapping of different states. In all, 394 physiography topobase were prepared. Areas of Sikkim, Goa, Andaman and Nicobar islands were mapped on 1:50,000 scale using LANDSAT TM data. Physiography-soil relationship was developed in sample areas.
    • Mapping and characterization of salt affected and associated degraded soils in Etah district of Uttar Pradesh
      Satellite data acquired between 15th March and 10th April has been found most appropriate for mapping salt affected soils in the Indo-Gangetic plains. October - November image is suitable for differentiation between poorly drained and well drained soils. Similarity of tone of salt affected soils and sandy soils on satellite data has been resolved with integration of thermal remote sensing data (10.5-12.5µm) with FCC.
    • Characterization of Jhilpi Watershed for land use planning using IRS-1C data.
      Methodology for utilization of IRS-IC data for mapping soil at watershed and village level has been developed. For watershed level mapping (1:50,000 scale) IRS 1C FCC data was visually interpreted to prepare physiography map of the watershed. Physiography-soil relationship was developed and soils were mapped as soil series associations. 

      For mapping of soils at village level, methodology involved (i) generation of PAN merged data, (ii) interpretation of merged data to derive information on land use/land cover and physiography, (iii) generation of physiography-landuse units (PLU), (iv) ground-truth collection to develop PLU-soil relationship and (v) finalization of soil map i.e. soil series with phases.
    • Modeling the spatial variability of soil loss estimation in a watershed near Nagpur using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques.
      For characterization of watershed and soil erosion assessment on 1: 50,000 scale, IRS-1C LISS-III temporal data was found appropriate. Spatial maps of soils, land use/land cover and slope maps were reclassified to generate USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) soil erodibility factor (K), slope-length factor (LS) and crop management and conservation factor (CP). These maps were integrated under GIS environment to compute the soil loss and soil erosion map of the watershed.
    • Evaluation of land use in relation to land quality in North Deccan plateau using Remote Sensing-GIS integration.
      North Deccan Plateau is a sensitive area for land conservation. Basaltic landscape is getting devoid of forest more than the sedimentary landscape. The socio-economic variables have a direct bearing on land utilization and the quality of the land.
    • Temporal changes in Peri-Urban land utilization and their influence on surrounding regions in Nagpur and Delhi
      The temporal study on peri-urban land utilization in Nagpur has revealed that the city has seen unprecedented growth during the last decade, especially in the last five years. The urban area of Nagpur spread over 30.5 sq. kms. in 1945 increased to 78.1 sq. kms. in 1973, and covers more than 220 sq. kms. At present. more than 27 villages adjoining the city have either been devoured or in the process of being engulfed by the urban agglomeration. Overlay of the Master Plan over the present land utilisation Map in GIS environment brings out that major deviations from the Master plan are evident.
      The urban expansion of Nagpur is taking place along the East-West route, inspite of the developments in Butibori Industrial area in the south along the national Kolkata-Mumbai National Highway. The prosperous agriculture in the east and south-east part of the city has almost blocked the urban expansion towards these directions, for the time being, though much of the area which was earlier under cultivation, on similar soils has become residential area after the Ring Road was introduced in this area. It can thus be safely postulated that as long as the remuneration from cultivation offsets the sale price to estate agents and land speculators, the cultivator does not dispose of the land.
    • Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils of Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains
      The study was undertaken in the Indo-Gangetic plain region to develop a comprehensive soil spectral library and to investigate the relationship between soil properties and soil reflectance at different wavelength between 350- 2500 nm.
      The reflectance characteristics of soils were studied both under field and laboratory condition. Under field conditions, the soil reflectance data showed water band noise around 1400 nm and 1900 nm. Soils with high salt content reflected more energy at different wavebands than the normal soils in Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. In laboratory, the spectral curves of all soils showed prominent absorption features at 1400, 1900 and 2200 nm. These features are mainly associated with free and lattice OH feature of the clay minerals. The salt affected soils rich in NaCl, showed a characteristic ‘U’ shaped absorption feature at 1900 nm. The soil rich in moisture and/ or organic carbon content, in general, decreased the soil reflectance in all the wave bands, thus reducing the soil albedo. The statistical correlation between different soil properties and soil reflectance data were studied.
    • Land resources and their evaluation for land use planning in basaltic terrain using remote sensing and GIS
      IRS-P6 (Resourcesat-1) LISS-IV data was found highly useful in precise delineation of physiographic boundaries which inturn was used to prepare the soil map after establishing physiography-soil relationship in Chandanpardi watershed of basaltic terrain.
    • Soil erosion risk and land quality in Warora tehsil, Chandrapur district of Maharashtra
      To assess the soil erosion and land quality in Warora tehsil of Chandrapur district, spatial information related to existing geology, land use/land cover, physiography, slope and soils has been derived through remote sensing (Landsat-7 TM), collateral data and field survey and used as inputs in a widely used erosion model (Universal Soil Loss Equation) in India to compute soil loss (t/ha/yr) in GIS. The study area has been delineated into very slight (<5 t/ha/yr), slight (5-10 t/ha/yr), moderate (10-15 t/ha/yr), moderately severe (15-20 t/ha/yr), severe (20-40 t/ha/yr) and very severe (>40 t/ha/yr) soil erosion classes. The study indicate that 45.4 thousand ha. (13.7% of TGA) is under moderate, moderately severe, severe and very severe soil erosion categories. 
      Various mapping units were grouped under good, moderate, marginal, poor and very poor land quality classes. Moderate quality lands occupy 37.1 per cent of TGA followed by marginal (18.4%) and good quality land (10.4%). Poor and very poor quality land cover 1.1 per cent of TGA.

    Externally funded projects (National)

    Department of Wastelands Development Funded Project

    • Harmonization of wastelands with soil degradation datasets (Collaborative research project between NBSS&LUP & NRSA).
      Realizing the utility of both soil degradation and wasteland maps, a collaborative research project (NBSS & LUP -NRSA) entitled "Harmonisation of wastelands/soil degradation datasets" was formulated. Six districts were selected for this study. It was decided that the work pertaining to three districts viz Salem (T.N.), Udaipur (Rajasthan) and Pune (Maharashtra) will be taken by the Bureau while the other three districts viz. Etah (U.P.), Raipur (M.P.) and Kohima (Nagaland) will be taken up by the NRSA. The project was submitted to Ministry for Rural Devel¬opment, Department of Wasteland Development for approval and financial support.
      The study indicates that in Salem district (Tamil Nadu), 52.4 per cent of the wastelands fall under strong degree of soil degradation, 27.3 per cent under moderate and 18.7 per cent under extreme degree of soil degradation. In Udaipur district of Rajasthan, 26.6 per cent of the total wastelands are under moderate degree of soil degradation, 39.2 per cent under strong and the rest 34.1 per cent is under extreme soil degradation class whereas, in Pune district (Maharashtra), 62.7 per cent of the wastelands fall under moderate degree of soil degradation, 22.4 per cent under strong and the remaining 14.9 per cent under extreme degree of soil degradation.

    AP Cess Funded Project

    • Standardization of methodology for large scale soil mapping using satellite data – (Collaborative research project between NBSS&LUP & NRSA).
      The study was undertaken jointly by NBSS&LUP Nagpur and NRSC, Hyderabad to standardize the methodology for mapping soils at 1: 50,000, 1: 25,000 and 1:12,500 scales using IRS 1C LISS-III data. The methodology, in general, includes image interpretation in conjunction with SOI Toposheet for preparation of physiography map, ground-truth collections, developing physiography-soil relationship and finalization of soil map.
      The study reported that soil landscape model is the most appropriate for mapping soils using remote sensing data as it takes into consideration the factors of soil formation. Remote sensing data helps in reducing the intensity of observation at different scale of mapping thus it saves time by 30 to 40 per cent depending upon the terrain conditions.

    NATP Project


    • Reflectance Libraries for development of soil sensors for periodic assessment of state of soil resource.
      The major objective of the project was to prepare a compendium of soil reflectance data in narrow spectral bands (between 350 to 2500 nm) of soils occurring in different physiographic/climatic regions of the country together with their laboratory measured soil parameters to identify suitable bands for prediction of soil properties.
      Nearly 600 pedons were studied in the field and more than 2500 surface and subsurface samples were collected for laboratory characterization. All the major soil orders viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Vertisols, Mollisols, Alfisols, Aridisols and Ultisols identified in the country were covered.
      The reflectance characteristics of soils were studied both under field and laboratory condition. Under field conditions, the soil reflectance data showed water band noise around 1400 nm and 1900 nm. Soils with high salt content reflected more energy at different wavebands than the normal soils in Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. A characteristics absorption feature around 2200 nm in ferralitic soils near Neelmangla, Karnataka indicate the dominance of kaolinitic clay minerals whereas the broad absorption feature around 950 nm indicate the dominance of iron oxides in the soils.
      In laboratory, a total of about 2500 spectra (surface and subsurface soil samples) were studied. The spectral curves of all soils showed prominent absorption features at 1400, 1900 and 2200 nm. These features are mainly associated with free and lattice OH feature of the clay minerals. Soils dominant in kaolinitic clay minerals showed relatively strong absorption feature around 2200 nm than the soils with smectitic mineralogy. Broad absorption feature around 950 nm was observed in red and ferralitic soils (soils rich in Fe content). The salt affected soils rich in Na/Mg chloride salts, showed a characteristic ‘U’ shaped absorption feature at 1900 nm. The soil rich in moisture and/ or organic carbon content, in general, decreased the soil reflectance in all the wave bands, thus reducing the soil albedo.
      Soil spectral library containing spectra of 128 surface soils collected from different physiographic/climatic region of India has been prepared both in digital and analog form (Atlas of soil spectral library). Each spectrum in the spectral library (developed in ENVI) was assigned suitable code so that salient information about soils could be derived from the soil spectra.
      An attempt was also made to predict soil properties of some shrink-swell soils of Central India from soil reflectance data and it was observed that soil reflectance data could be used as a potential tool to derive information on wide range of soil properties.
    • Soil variability mapping and fertility zonation using hyperspectral data (Collaborative project between NBSS&LUP and SAC, Ahmedabad)
      The study was carried out jointly by NBSS&LUP, Nagpur and SAC, Ahmedabad in Lonar and surrounding area of Buldhana to assess the applicability of hyperspectral data in mapping soil variability and delineating soil fertility zones. The Hyperion data was used in this study. The data was atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software. The Hyperion FCC (generated using bands 51, 33 and 22) was visually interpreted in conjunction with SOI Toposheet and other collateral information to delineate different physiographic units in the area. Soil profiles were studied in different physiographic units for their morphological, physical and chemical characteristics and to establish the physiography-soil relationship. Based on physiography-soil relationship, the soils of the study area were mapped. In total 14 soil series were identified in the area based on variation in landform, soil depth, colour, texture, calcareousness and profile development.
      The advantage of hyperspectral data has been observed in quantitative mapping of surface organic carbon. Significant negative correlation was observed between soil organic carbon and Hyperion soil reflectance values at different wavelength. Using stepwise multiple regression (SMLR) technique, a relatively good (R2= 0.51) spectral model was obtained for prediction of organic carbon from soil reflectance data. The model was applied on Hyperion data to understand the spatial distribution of organic carbon in the study area. However, this model needs to be validated in other areas with similar agro-ecological conditions. This demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data in quantitative mapping of soil properties. Further research in this line is needed with larger dataset so that robust spectral models for different soil properties could be developed and validated in the field.

    Externally funded projects (Foreign)

    UNDP Funded Project

    • Application of remote sensing techniques for identifying, delineating and monitoring soil degradation and its hazard.
      Soil degradation map of India prepared using GLASOD Methodology indicate that 187 million ha is suffering from various kind and degree of soil degradation. Water erosion is the major problem causing loss of top soil and/or terrain deformation in about 148 million ha representing 45% of the total geographical area of the country. Wind erosion is dominant in western regions covering 13.5 million ha (4.1%). The chemical degradation is observed in 13.6 million ha causing salinization in 10.1 million ha and loss of nutrient and/or organic matter in 3.7 m. ha. Physical deterioration due to water logging accounts for 11.6 m.ha. The GLASOD methodology was modified for precise assessment of soil degradation due to water erosion. The criteria for degree of soil degradation denoted qualitatively by slight, moderate, strong and extreme correlated well with quantitative figures of soil loss as 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and >40 t/ha/yr, respectively.


     


     


     


     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    Institute projects











    1. Design & development of spatial soil database & their analysis in GIS
      The GIS based spatial soil resource database at 1:250,000 scale of all the states in the country has been developed. States for which soil information was generated earlier on 1: 500,000 scale were re-digitized on toposheet basis (1:250,000 scale) to create parity of soil resource database in GIS. In this major effort soil resource database has been developed for about 490 toposheets covering 27 states of India. Besides, soil information at state level, the district level information on soil and related data is very important for agriculture planning. Various soils based thematic maps have been generated for the selected districts. The source of database comprises the digitized soil and attributes data of SRM, which were generated in GIS for about 12 districts in the country.
    2. Delineation of Productivity Efficiency Zones in Different Agro-Ecological Zones
      Agro-ecological sub-region based crop planning considers the soil, site and climatic resources and constraints on one end and socio-economic aspects on the other. Crop efficiency zones were delineated in each AESR of semi-arid and subhumid ecosystems based on spread and yield of different crops grown in a zone. The mapping and analysis for efficiency zoning was carried in GIS using district level secondary information of crops (area and yield). The data base of crop sown area for rice, maize, ragi, sugarcane, gram, wheat, groundnut, maize, pigeonpea, cotton and sorghum at district level were generated and considered for analysis.
    3. Generation of Soil Resource Atlas of Chhattisgarh State
      The generated soil resource atlas of Chhattisgarh state is of immense help for the scientists, planners and administrators in agricultural planning and development. The thematic maps on slope, soil taxonomy, depth, drainage, texture, AWC, pH, erosion, flooding were generated. Some of the derived suitability maps for different crops were also generated. Using area analysis options, the area analysis has been generated for different thematic layer.
    4. Generation of digital Agro-Ecological Zone Maps
      The agro-ecological region concept characterizes tracts of land by quantified information on climate, soils and other physical factors, which are used to predict the potential productivity for various crops according to their specific environmental and management needs. The data layers and maps of physiographic regions, bioclimatic types, LGP, soil moisture and temperature regimes were generated in GIS. These GIS layers have been used in generation of agro-ecological regions and sub regions of India. This information is helpful in delineating productivity efficiency zones, agro-technology transfer and scientific land use planning.
    5. Harmonization of datasets for wasteland development
      Wasteland maps prepared by NRSA were harmonized for the selected districts with the data of degraded lands assessed by NBSS&LUP to evaluate and identify the extent of wastelands. The work on the harmonization of datasets of wasteland vs land degradation of Pune, Udaipur and Salem districts was carried out following map 'overlay' techniques. Statistical information on area/parameters was obtained using 'single map analysis'. Raster overlay of the two themes was done to bring out harmonized raster of wastelands and soil degradation. The final output was disseminated at toposheet level with suitable legends.
    6. Quantitative assessment of soil erosion in Nagpur district using USLE model
      Using USLE model, the potential and actual soil erosion/loss of Nagpur district was estimated. The actual soil loss was computed by multiplying the potential soil loss with C-factor and P-factors. The priority rating of the tehsils was evaluated based on calculating the quantum of soil loss under each erosion class and by computing the area weighted mean for each tahsil. The tehsils of Hingna, Katol, Parseoni and Saoner come under high priority, tehsils of Narkher, Umrer, Ramtek and Kalmeshwar come under medium priority and tehsils of Bhiwapur, Nagpur, Kuhi and Kamptee come under low priority.
       
    7. GIS based integrated approach for prioritization of watersheds
      The potential and actual soil erosion/loss at watershed level was estimated using USLE model. The quantum of potential and actual soil loss at watershed level was calculated through multiplication of the area by mean value of the respective erosion class. The compound values of each watershed were calculated based on the total soil loss under different erosion classes dividing with the total area of the respective watershed. The erosion susceptibility zone map was generated based on the ranks of estimated actual soil loss parameters of watersheds.
    8. Development of Resource Database and Spatial Modelling for Integrated Agricultural Development of Gondia District, Maharashtra
      Geo-spatial resource database of Gondia district has been developed in GIS on 1:50,000 scale. The weighted thematic data on slope, LGP, soil depth, groundwater potential zones and land use/land cover were integrated in GIS to delineate bio-physical land units (BLU's). The estimated carrying capacity and biophysical resource units at tehsil level have been used to analyze the problems and potentials for optimum utilization of available resources and sustainable agricultural development at tehsil level.
    9. Soil Quality Mapping of Different States and India (1:250,000 scale)
      The soil maps and attribute database generated in SRM project were used in GIS for generation of digital soils resource information system. The soil maps of all the states have been digitized at 1:250,000 and generated seamless vector mosaic to form a soil layer at 1:250,000 scale. The methodology comprises digitization of base map (toposheetwise) georeferencing, edge matching/mosaicing, topology building, attribution of polygons, linking non-spatial data, rasterization, thematic layer generation, area analysis, map composition and output. The spatial distribution of soil quality parameters like soil pH and soil acidity which, in turn, helps in diagnostics of land use planning parameters. The non-spatial (attribute) data was linked with soil layers to generate various derivative thematic maps, like soil reaction (pH), salinity, sodicity, etc. The district area layers have been generated for each state and attributed with district id and district name in the polygon attribute table (PAT). The district quadree layers have been generated for area calculation after generation of soil pH maps. Cross tabulation area analysis options in GIS were used to generate district wise soil pH and acid soils area statistics.
    10. Soil resource data and their interpretation for implementation of river link projects in India: Ken-Betwa river link project
      Ken-Betwa Link Project (KBLP) is one of the links among 30 River links proposed by the Government of India’s National Water Development Agency (NWDA) involving MP and UP in the Bundelkhand region. In the implementation of such mega-projects, terrain analysis, soil resource data and their interpretation assumes significance in terms of the potentialities and limitations of soils for its effective use on sustainable manner. The soil resource inventory provides adequate information in terms of landform, terrain, vegetation as well as characteristics of soils which can be utilized for land resources management and development. Keeping this in view, the present project was undertaken to generate soil resource information and interpret the data for implementation of Ken-Betwa river link project. Physiographically, the area has been delineated in to Malwa Plateau, Pathar and Bundelkhand Upland and Vindhyan Ranges and Escarpment. The slope analysis shows level to nearly level, very gently sloping, gently sloping, moderately sloping, moderately steeply sloping and steeply sloping lands classes.

      Based on IRS LISS-III data, the land use/ land cover classes like cropland, fallow land, forest, gullied/ravenous land, sandy waste, scrubland, waterbody, river and habitation identified. Six soil depth classes were delineated in the study area. The soils are very shallow, shallow, moderately shallow, moderately deep, deep and very deep. The family textural class of the soils indicate that the soils are fine, clayey, clayey-skeletal, fine-loamy, coarse-loamy, loamy and loamy-skeletal and fine-silty. Five erosion classes have been identified viz. none to very slight, slight, moderate, severe and very severe. The drainage classes identified are imperfect, moderately well, well, somewhat excessive and excessive. The salinity classes identified are negligible, slight and moderate. Most of the area is non-saline. The factors considered for delineation of submergence zones are elevation, landforms and slope of the area. The submergence zones were categorized in to high potential, moderate potential and low potential. The area under high, moderate and low potential submergence zones constitute 1515.4, 2505.9 and 2153.9 km2, respectively. In conclusion, the soil resource data was interpreted through remote sensing, topo-maps and other supporting data and the map information was generated through GIS. The information may help the planners and implementing agencies in decision making for irrigation potential, cropping systems, horticulture, agroforestry and other related developmental activities in Ken-Betwa river basin.
    11. Soil Quality Mapping of Different States and India (1:250,000 scale)
      The soil maps and attribute database generated in SRM project were used in GIS for generation of digital soils resource information system. The soil maps of all the states have been digitized at 1:250,000 and generated seamless vector mosaic to form a soil layer at 1:250,000 scale. The methodology comprises digitization of base map (toposheetwise) georeferencing, edge matching/mosaicing, topology building, attribution of polygons, linking non-spatial data, rasterization, thematic layer generation, area analysis, map composition and output. The spatial distribution of soil quality parameters like soil pH and soil acidity which, in turn, helps in diagnostics of land use planning parameters. The non-spatial (attribute) data was linked with soil layers to generate various derivative thematic maps, like soil reaction (pH), salinity, sodicity, etc. The district area layers have been generated for each state and attributed with district id and district name in the polygon attribute table (PAT). The district quadree layers have been generated for area calculation after generation of soil pH maps. Cross tabulation area analysis options in GIS were used to generate district wise soil pH and acid soils area statistics.
    12. Development of GIS based Seamless Mosaic of SRTM Elevation Data for India to Analyze and Characterize the Selected Geomorphometric Parameters (NBSS&LUP and RRSSC Collaborative Project)
      This main objective of the project was to acquire and assess the quality of SRTM 90 m elevation data available in public domain to develop GIS based seamless mosaic at India level and analyze and characterize the SRTM data through digital terrain analysis techniques to map different geomorphic parameters at India, state and agro-ecological region level. Around SRTM-90 m elevation mosaic was generated for the India. Based on the country, state and agro-ecological region (AER) boundaries, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM’s) were generated for further analysis and extraction of various geomorphometric parameters. Using the suitable techniques in GIS, the sinks in the DEM dataset of India have been removed and later it was clipped at state and AER level for further processing. Based on the digital terrain analysis of SRTM datasets, geomorphometric parameters., viz,. slope, hillshade, relief, aspect, contours, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, flow direction, flow accumulation, drainage and topographic wetness index (TWI) were extracted, analysed and thematic maps were generated at India, state and AER level. The digital elevation model of India shows that the elevation ranges from 0 to 8500 m above mean sea level (msl). The analysis of profile curvature of India shows that values ranges from -30.94 to 24.95. The analysis of plan curvature of India indicates the values ranges from that -23.43 to 32.07. The analysis of total curvature of India shows that values ranges from -37.30 to 63.01. Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) of India ranges from -6.08 to 34.57. The analysis of generated geomorphometric parameters has been carried out at state and AER level. The generated digital geomorphometric parameters at India, state and AER level could be effectively integrated with other datasets in natural resource assessment and mapping.

    Inter-Institutional Projects





    1. Soil loss assessment of different states of India (NBSS&LUP and CSWCR&TI) 
      The collaborative project between NBSS&LUP and CSWCR&TI was aimed to assess of soil loss in different states of India from the soil data collected at 10 km grid during soil resource mapping (SRM) projects. In this project, the point data of USLE parameters for different states was entered with location information in GIS. Using the established empirical model (USLE), the point data has been interpolated using interpolation techniques in SPANS GIS to estimate the spatial variation of different soil loss factors (R, K, L, S, C and P factors). These factors have been integrated in GIS to assess the soil loss at different states of India. The soil loss map of India has been generated through combining the soil loss maps of different states and the spatial extent of different classes has been estimated. The soil loss map of India (except Goa and Mizoram states) has been generated by combining the soil loss maps of different states. The spatial extent of different categories of soil loss classes has assessed and analysis shows that area under moderate (10-15 t/ha/yr), moderately severe (10-15 t/ha/yr), severe(10-15 t/ha/yr), very severe (10-15 t/ha/yr) and extremely severe (10-15 t/ha/yr) soil loss categories covers 13.06%, 6.28%, 10.36% 7.15%, 3.91% and 8.92% of the total geographical area (TGA) of country, respectively.
    2. Harmonized and assessment of Degraded lands and Wastelands Datasets of India (NBSS&LUP, NAAS, CSWCR&TI, CSSR, CAZRI and NRSA)
      As a collaborative effort between NBSS&LUP and NRM Division (ICAR), NAAS, CSWCR&TI, CSSR, CAZRI and NRSA efforts have been made to bring the available datasets on degraded lands and wastelands of India on GIS platform to assess the degraded lands and wastelands at national level. In this detailed GIS based model, the spatial layers on water erosion (soil loss) (NBSS&LUP), acid soils (CSSRI), wind erosion (CAZRI), dense and open forest (FSI) and other layers like area under glaciers, rockout crops, mining/industrial waste and water logged areas layers (NRSA) were considered in GIS based systematic procedure. The harmonized land degradation and wastelands map of India is shown below.
    3. Enrichment of land degradation datasets with soils datasets of different states of India (NBSS&LUP and NRSC)
      This inter-institutional project was undertaken to enrich the information of land degradation maps (1:50,000 scale) prepared by NRSC with the selected soil parameters of soil resource maps of NBSS&LUP and to finalize the state wise land degradation maps of India. The main activities involved in the project are (i) projection transformation of soil/soil loss datasets to make it compatible with land degradation datasets, (ii) appending the identified ten soil parameters relevant to land degradation to enrich land degradation datasets using the suitable option in GIS, (iii) reconciliation of the enriched land degradation datasets, and (iv) finalization of the state wise enriched land degradation maps with suitable legends. The soil parameters pertinent to land degradation like slope, erosion, parent material, soil depth, surface texture, surface stoniness, particle size, calcareousness, soil reaction (pH) and soil salinity/sodicity have been identified to enrich the land degradation datasets. The GIS based methodology has been standardized to enrich the land degradation datasets with soils datasets of different states of India. Using various GIS techniques, the enriched LD datasets were further processed to generate the unique land degradation class. The generated enriched datasets were reconciled during the project review meetings. Finally, unique codes were generated at national scale for representation of LD classes at India level. Class-wise area statistics have been generated for each state. By compiling the state wise legend, the legend at India level has been finalized.
    4. Soil Fertility Mapping – (IISS and NBSS&LUP) 
      The project was aimed to generate different soil fertility thematic maps at state level considering district as unit based on the data provided by ISSS, Bhopal.
    5. Digital Mapping of Weeds in India – (NRCWS and NBSS&LUP) 
      The project was aimed to prepare weed infestation maps based on the data provided by NRC-WS for spatial depiction of the kinds and extent of infestation of different species of weeds in the present cropping system prevalent in different states of India. The thematic maps were generated which shows degree of infestation of different types of weeds at state level.

    Externally Funded Projects (National)



    1. Integrated National Agriculture Resources Information System (INARIS)-Soil Resource Information System- Soil Resource Information system
      The major objective of the project was to generate digital database on agricultural resources at national/regional/local level to develop integrated national agricultural resources information system (INARIS) based on the integration of various multidisciplinary data sets generated by different Institutes. So far as NBSS&LUP is concern, the main assignment was to generate digital soil resources database at national and state level on 1:1 m scale. The soil resource database of India was produced based the soil map at 1:1 m published by NBSS&LUP was used. The soil attribute database on map unit id, soil depth, drainage, particle size, slope, erosion, surface stoniness, flooding, calcareousness, salinity and sodicity data was compiled and codified as per OGC standard and extended legend was prepared as per the INARIS data structure. The other attribute database like SRM map units, pedon no., colour, surface texture, soil temperature regime, parent material, land (surface) form, organic carbon (OC), cation, exchange capacity (CEC), soil reaction (pH) and mineralogy were compiled at respective regional center from SRM data (1:250,000 scale) and was provided to enter in the main database as per the INARIS data structure. This project delivered the first National Geo-referenced Soil Information System.

      The data entry forms like polygon description, polygon details, state information, state and district code, soil site, physical, chemical and fertility status were generated. The data entry forms like polygon details, state information, soil site, physical, chemical and composite query form were gnerated. Through designed data entry forms in Visual basic as a front end, soil resource database pertaining to site, physical and chemical properties were entered for almost all the states of India. Besides the soil resource data, the coded database on states, districts and toposheets (1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scale). Through the designed composite query form, soil resource information pertaining to any state, district and toposheet can be obtained. The Web-Site has been developed in Microsoft FrontPage 2000 using HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and Scripting Language 'Javascript 1.2' in Asp pages. Software used for developing the Web-site are Microsoft FrontPage 2000, Flash, Swish, Visual Interdev, ISS Server and Ms- Access as database and Microsoft Internet Explorer as Browser. State-wise and District-wise soil parameters can be obtained for each soil-units occurring in that Particular State and its districts.
    2. Ecological Evaluation of land resources and land use systems in different agro-ecological regions of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra using Remote sensing and GIS techniques (AP-Cess fund)
      The project was aimed to characterize the resources in the selected watersheds in three distinct agro-ecological regions of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra to analyze their problems, potentials and to find out ecologically sensitive units to assess the environmental impacts on land use systems and formulate site-specific action plans for sustainable land use systems. The selected watersheds are Borgaon Manju in Deccan plateau, Semi-Arid AER (Akola district), Mohari in Central Highlands, Hot (dry) Sub-Humid AER (Bhandara district) and Vihirgaon in Eastern Plateau and Eastern Ghats, Hot (moist) Sub-Humid AER (Chandrapur district). The soil resource inventory in the watersheds has been carried out. Based on the soil site, morphological, physical and chemical properties, land capability and land irrigability classes has been worked out in the watersheds by comparing the characteristics of a land-mapping units with critical limits set for each capability and irrigability class. Soil suitability for 12 major crops like cotton, pigeon pea, wheat, rice, sorghum, bengal gram, mung bean, safflower, sunflower, linseed, soybean and chilli has been worked out in three watersheds.

      Watershed wise parcel level database has been collected for 25 years (1980-81 to 2005-06) at five year interval and designed database in GIS environment to generate spatio-temporal land use systems maps. Analysis of land transformation processes in the selected watersheds over a period of 25 years has been worked out. The transformation in the land use systems clearly indicates the shift from subsistence to commercial cultivation. Significant shift in land use towards soybean crop has been noticed and the area under different combinations of soybean crop has been increased from almost negligible area in the year 1980-81 to about 13.5 per cent in the year 2005-06. Carrying capacity in the watersheds has been assessed based on the availability and requirement of food grains in terms of calories for human population and availability and requirement of forage (dry matter) for animal population for the year 2005-06. Based on the gap analysis, the surplus and deficit zones of carrying capacity both for human and animal population has been ranked and the composite carrying capacity index (CCI) has been generated to assess the overall carrying capacity and to identify the surplus and deficit zones in the watersheds. Based on the the multi-thematic vector database integration in GIS, the distinct composite land resources units (CLRU’s) were delineated. The analysis of ecological sustainability of CLRU's in watersheds has been worked out. Ecological Sustainable Zones (ESZ) maps of Borgaon Manju, Mohari and Vihirgaon watersheds are shown below. These units have been considered as a base to formulate site-specific action plans through analysis of their physical and ecological potentials and limitations.
    3. Human Resource development in Remote sensing and GIS in Natural Resource Management-(NNRMS (ISRO)- NBSS&LUP) 
      NNRMS (ISRO) and NBSS&LUP jointly formulated project was aimed to organize a series of training programmes at different Regional centers and Head Quarters of NBSS&LUP. The main objectives of the joint effort are (i) capacity building in the field of RS and GIS application in natural resources management, (ii) enhance expert manpower to cater to the needs of agricultural universities, state departments and district developmental agencies, and (iii) to pave the way for inter institutional collaboration towards spatial database creation and management. In all ten NNRMS (ISRO) sponsored training programmes conducted at NBSS&LUP, Nagpur and its Regional Centers, and about 172 trainee officers from ICAR, SAU’s, State Govt. departments and Academic institutions were trained.

    Consultancy Projects





    1. Cropping system analysis using GIS applications–Indo Gangetic Plains (ICRISAT)
      Based on the work done by GIS Laboratory, the Bureau has been recognized as potential GIS center. ICRISAT provided consultancy to NBSS&LUP for a training programe arranged for the scientists of the Asian region (Bangalore, Nepal, Srilanka and India). The programme aimed at providing hands-on training on GIS application in cropping system research. GIS analysis with respect to Rice-Wheat cropping system and Legumes were carried out as case studies from each country. Change detection studies of crop productivity carry importance to analyze the factors controlling the production and productivity of a cropping system. Changes in wheat yield in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India between 1960 and 1990 years were analyzed to detect the temporal changes in productivity of wheat before and after green revolution using GIS technology. A district polygon coverage was digitized for the IGP region in SPANS GIS system and the data base (area, production and yield) in dbase III format was appended. Quadtree overlay was performed and aggregation was done to indicate the areas of change from 1960 to 1990. The results show that there has been a steady increase in wheat productivity over time in the entire IGP region with varying degree of enhancement in yield.
    2. District Level Digital Soil Information of Bankura District, West Bengal (DST)
      The consultancy project entitled, "District level digital information of Bankura district, West Bengal" was accomplished using the base information available at 1:50,000 at soil series association level, in ARC/INFO readable format (E00) and ARC VIEW (.shp, .shx, .aax, .dbf) formats along with attribute database. This present project forms a part of consultancy activities of NBSS&LUP with Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi. The main project entitled "GIS based technologies for integrated development planning" Thematic maps pertaining to slope, physiography, soil depth, drainage class, textural class, CEC, pH, organic carbon and available water holding capacity were produced. Interpretative maps like land capability and land irrigibility classes were supplied to DST for use in developing land use plans.
    3. Soil suitability evaluation for rubber cultivation in Tripura (Consultancy project)
      The Bureau in collaboration with the Directorate of Agriculture and Horticulture and Soil Conservation, Govt. of Tripura, with the financial and other support of the Rubber Board, Govt.of India, prepared soil resource map of Tripura on 1:250,000 scale for expansion of Rubber plantation in Tripura state. Spatial soil and attribute database of the project was processed and analysed in GIS to generate various thematic and interpretative maps like suitability for Rubber growing areas. The soil suitability map for rubber in Tripura is shown below.
    4. Global Irrigated Area Mapping (GIAM) Project (IWMI)
      ICAR deputed scientist from GIS Section for one month period from 1st to 30th September, 2006 on short term consultancy to work with scientific team at Remote Sensing and GIS unit, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo in Global Irrigated Area Mapping (GIAM) project in the fields of GIS and Remote sensing to facilities a systematic and detailed irrigated area maps of India. During the visit, the irrigated area statistics of India derived from satellite sensors in GIAM project and was validated with national statistics. IWMI produced two satellite sensor based irrigated area maps of India under GIAM project. These are one at NOAA AVHRR 10 km and another MODIS 500 m resolution. The visited scientist compiled the available Indian national statistics data and satellite based datasets of IWMI on irrigated areas for comparative analysis.
    5. GIS applications in predictive modeling
      Dr. A.K. Maji, Pr. Scientist and Incharge GIS Section visited CSIRO, Australia as visiting Scientist to study on GIS applications in predictive modeling for performance of Stylosanthes in India.


     


     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division





    • Soil climatic database for development and planning:
      The project was undertaken to characterize climatic parameters for developing soil climatic water balances which will help in determining the Length of Growing Period (LGP) which may further help in identifying rainfed crop suitable zones. The data base generated will be helpful in assessing irrigation need and predicting yields under rainfed farming system.

      Using long term climatic data of a large number of meterological stations (1700+) spread throughout India (data of IMD and various state governments) soil climatic water balances were worked out and the length of growing period was calculated for all the stations and bio-climatic classification was done and a map was prepared for India.
    • Agro-ecologial subregions of India:
      The project was taken up to bring out an agro-ecological map of the country. Through several approximations and using the parameters such as bioclimate, length of growing period, physiography and soils, the agro-ecological subregion map was prepared. About 1700 climatic stations data was used for computing water balances which formed the base for the generalized climatic map and Length of Growing Period (LGP) map. The generalized, physiographic and soil maps and other were parameters used for the purpose and the AER map was published in 1992, while for sub regionalization of AER, information about soil physiography and LGP has been narrowed down. The soil concept has been extended to soil quality attributes in terms of available water capacity (AWC). At places, the soil quality attributes such as soil depth, texture and mineralogy has been used in combination with cropping pattern and vegetation type to sub-regionalise a broad region.

      Thus, the 20 region AER map has been further sub divided into 60 sub regions and the final map has been prepared on 1:4 m scale and published in 1996.
    • Generation of district Soil Resource Atlases:
      Based on the soil data an attempt was made to bring out Atlases at district level. The Atlas contains series of thematic maps which were compiled and grouped under 5 parts. The Atlas contains themes on soil and their characteristics and qualities and other socio-economic variables, which are essential for formulating proper land use planning at district level. About 6 Atlases has been generated for Madhya Pradesh (Dhar, Bhopal, Guna, Chhindwara, Ratlam). 02 atlases has been completed for Chhattisgarh (Jagdalpur and Bilaspur). For Assam only 1 district was completed (Jorhat).
    • Soil resource map at state level (1:250,000)
      The task force on soil land use constituted by Planning Commission in its report emphasized the need for a reliable 1:1 million soil map of the country. Taking the report into consideration, the soil resource map of different state on (1:250,000 scale) was prepared following a unified approach and methodology.

      To prepare the soil map of different states a 3 tier approach viz. image interpretation field work (ground truth), soil sample analysis (laboratory characterization) Cartography and printing. Soil maps of all the 28 sites has been prepared and printed on 1:250,000 scale. The soil mapping units at state level is at family level consisting of dominant soils (>50% of aerial extent) sub dominant (>35% and 50% aerial extent) and inclusions (<15% aerial extent). In case of associations of two soils dominant soil occupy 60% whereas sub dominant soil had 40% of area. Each soil map of the state is accompanied with report.
    • Soil resource map at national level (1:1,000,000):
      For the preparation of soil map of India a rigorous and systematic edge matching was done on the soil map of states (1:250,000) and thereafter following the principles of Cartographic and categorical generalization the map was brought to 1:1 m scale without loosing the essence and objectivity of map. The present map contain 1649 mapping units and compared on sub-group association. The units are arranged as per physiographic regions. Besides taxonomic classification these mapping units are also described in terms of their depth, drainage, texture, calcareousness, topography of landform and phases like, slope, erosion, stoniness, rockiness, salinity, sodicity and flooding. The colour of the mapping units has been assigned as per great group of dominant soils.

    National Projects

    • Identifying system for carbon sequestration and increase productivity in semiarid tropical environments (NATP)
    • Developing model on the formation and resilience of naturally degraded black soils of the Peninsular India as a decision support system for better land use planning (DST)
    • Soil landscape model for cropping pattern in Tripura (DST)

    International Projects

    • Assessment of soil organic carbon stock and change at national scale (IGP, India- case study- UNEP)
    • Soil resource survey for Tripura for expansion of rubber cultivation (World Bank)
    • Resource soil survey and mapping of rubber growing soils of Kerala and Tamil Nadu (World Bank)

    Consultancy Projects

    Ongoing Projects
     

    Institute Projects

    • Development of soil reflectance library for characterization of soil properties in Nagpur district, Maharashtra.
    • Integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS in land resource characterization, evaluation and mapping in Saraswati watershed in Buldhana district of Maharashtra.
    • Development of soil reflectance methods and variable rate inputs in precision farming (NAIP-PAU)

    Collaborative Project

    • Soil variability mapping and fertility zonation using hyperspectral data (NBSS&LUP & SAC, Ahmedabad
    • NAIP Project on “Development of Spectral Reflectance Methods and Low Cost Sensors for Real-Time Application of Variable Rate Inputs in Precision Farming” (Collaborative project with PAU Ludhiana)
    • Project Soil moisture estimation using RISAT SAR data (Collaborative project between RRSSC- NBSS)


     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    Institute Projects




    1. Development of Indian Soil Information System (ISIS) – A Geoportal 
      In order to design and develop seamless Indian Soil Information System (ISIS) – a Geoportal on 1:250,000 scale in GIS, the digital database on river basins and sub basins of India have been generated. The digital terrain database of India using SRTM (90m) and ASTER (30m) digital elevation models have been developed. The 20 agro-ecological regions (AER’s) and 60 agro-ecological sub regions (AESR’s) database has been brought under ISIS domain with the uniform projection and standards. About 1600 meteorological stations have been digitized to generate spatial climatic database to enrich the spatial databases generated under ISIS. To provide the satellite database in ISIS, 20 AWiFs scenes (56 m spatial resolution) and Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data (30 m resolution) have been georeferenced and mosaic has been generated. The schema has been standardized for development of soil resource information at state and India level with uniform standards. This year, generation of seamless soil resources database for Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa and Kerala has been completed under ISIS domain.
    2. Development of District Soil Information System (DSIS) on 1:50,000 scale (50 Districts)
      The project was undertaken to design and develop District Soil Information System (DSIS) on 1:50,000 scale (50 districts) in GIS with uniform standards to store, process, manage the geospatial soil database at district level. During the reporting period, the schema for the input parameters in the GIS database has been standardized for development of soil resource information at district level with uniform standards. In order to enhance the utility of district level soil resource databases, climatic data, soil loss, degraded/wastelands, terrain and satellite database have been included to query and retrieve the information at district, tehsil and block level for the users. This will enhance the utility of soil resource information for district level land use planning. District soil database for ten districts have been digitized and converted into uniform projection system and brought under India district database.
    3. GIS modeling to predict Land Productivity Potential (LPP) for major crops in Wardha district of sub-Humid (dry) region, Eastern Maharashtra
      The project was undertaken to delineate and characterize Pedo-Ecological Units (PEU), cropping systems using temporal satellite and field data, and to develop suitable model in GIS to integrate the thematic parameters in mapping crop based Land Productivity Potential (LPP). In order to develop the terrain database, ASTER GDEM (30 m) scenes were mosaicked and different terrain parameters, like slope, hill shade, aspect etc. were generated. The two seasons IRS P6 LISS-III data for the year 2010-2011 has been digitally analyzed to characterize the major land use/land cover classes in the district. The preliminary analysis shows that about 47.0 per cent area is under different crops. The field data on various aspects of terrain, land use systems and production and productivity of the selected crops has been collected at around 50 locations for validation of the model with the help of GPS. The soil resource database of Wardha district has been generated based on the available soil information. Various soil based thematic database has been generated. In order to delineate the Pedo-Ecological Units, the thematic database on slope, climatic data, soil depth, soil texture, drainage, soil pH, OC and land use systems have been integrated in a model in GIS. The distinct Pedo-ecological Units have been delineated in the district to predict the Land Productivity Potential (LPP) for major crops.
    4. Assessment of spatio-temporal variability of major crops in different states of India for land use planning : A GIS based approach
      The project was aimed to assess the temporal variability of area, production and yield of major crops in different states of India, generation of thematic database in GIS and to find out the factors influencing the change in land use systems. During the reporting period, collection and compilation of district level data on area, production and yield for major crops and map generation thematic database for Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra have been completed. The preliminary analysis of area under total oilseeds in Maharashtra shows that in the year 1975-76 there was only one district (Osmanabad),which had more than 20,000 ha, area under oilseeds whereas, in the year 2005-06 six districts have been noticed. Regarding the area under total pulses in Maharashtra, there were only two districts in the year 1975-76, which had more than 30,000 ha, however, in 2005-06, there were seven districts. The study indicates that the area under total oilseeds and total pulses has been increased in Maharashtra from 1975-2005-06. Calculation of Herfindahl index, Entropy index, Modified Entropy index, and Composite Entropy index showed that crop diversification is more in recent years compared to 1950-51. Cropping pattern moved from specialization to diversification from 1950-51 to 2009-10 because of commercialisation of agriculture i.e., cultivation of more remunerative crops after globalization.


     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division

    Institute Projects

    • Generation of digital soil thematic maps and preparation of Soil Atlas of India
    • Documentation and storing maps and photograph- concept of digital map library
    • Characterization and evaluation of carbon and sulphur status in soybean growing areas of Dhar district- Madhya Pradesh to suggest on alternative cropping pattern.
    • Land Resource Inventory for farm planning in Parseoni mandal of Parseoni taluk, Nagpur district, Maharashtra.

    Externally funded projects (National)
    NAIP-sub-project

    • Geo-referenced soil information system for land use planning and monitoring soil and land quality for agriculture.
    • Delineation of agro-ecological zones and sub zones of Uttar Pradesh for suggesting land use plan.
    • Preparation of soil resource atlas of tobacco growing areas of India.

    Externally Funded Projects (Foreign)

     

    Consultancy Projects

     

    Achievements

    • Soil- map of India (1985)
    • Bioclimatic Region of India (1988)
    • Vertisols and associated soil (1988)
    • Agro-ecological regions of India (1982)
    • Soil moisture regimes of India (1993)
    • Length of growing period in India (1993)
    • Red and lateritic soil of India (1993)
    • Soil temperature regimes of India (1994)
    • Agro-ecological sub-regions of India (1995)
    • Soil-map of India 1:1 million (2000)

    Cartographic support

    • Soil erosion map of different states of India
    • Soil resource atlas of tobacco growing areas of India
    • Delineation of agro-ecological zones and sub-zones of Uttar Pradesh for suggesting land use planning
    • Seed-atlas of India.
    Capacity Building
     

    Post Graduate teaching and education

    It is being run in collaboration with Dr.Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (Dr.P.D.K.V.), Akola since 1987 under Land Resource Management (L.R.M) programme. The programme has two major components viz. Post Graduate teaching and Research.

    The students of M.Sc and Ph.D (LRM) are admitted at Dr.P.D.K.V Akola and later join at NBBSS for Research work. So far eight M.Sc and three Ph.D (LRM) students have done their research work in the division and got their degree.

    Division also conducts course on ‘Visual and Digital Interpretation Techniques in Soil Mapping” for Ph.D students.

    Training imparted

    • The division has organized training cum interaction programme on Soil Reflectance Measurement for Spectral Library Development under NATP project during 17-31 August 2004.
    • Organized three NNRMS (ISRO) Sponsored training on 'Remote Sensing Application in Soils and Agriculture' for university teachers from 16th January to 24th February, 1996 and from 19th August to 17th September, 1997 and one on "Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Natural Resource Management" from 20th Mar. to 9th April 2007.
    • Conducted training on “GIS-GPS interface” at NRCWS, Jabalpur on 10th May, 2007.
    • Conducted two ICAR sponsored Winter School training on “Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Soil Land and Agriculture” from 9th February to 1st March, 2009 and “Advances in remote sensing, GIS and GPS in watershed management” from 12th November to 2nd December, 2009.


     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    Post Graduate Teaching and Education

    The Section is actively involved in teaching and guiding M.Sc and Ph.D students in Land Resource Management (LRM). So far 5 M.Sc students have been completed their Dissertation in GIS applications and presently two Ph.D students doing their research work. This programme is being run in collaboration with Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (Dr. P.D.K.V), Akola.

    Training imparted

    1. Organized NAIP (ICAR) sponsored two weeks national training on “Recent Trends of Geoinformatics in Land Resource Database Management for Sustainable Agriculture” at GIS Section, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur from 15th to 28th November, 2011. Fourteen trainee officers from ICAR, SAU’s and KVK’s covering different states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu were participated in the training.
    2. Organized DST sponsored three days Data Users’ Seminar and GIS Training has been organized at GIS Section in collaboration with LIGHTS NGO organization from 16th to 18th October, 2011. Around 52 senior secondary teachers from central India were trained on various aspects of GIS, Remote sensing and GPS principles and applications.
    3. Organized ICAR Sponsored Winter School “Advances in GIS and Remote sensing based Digital Terrain Analysis and Hydro-geomorphic Applications in Soil-Landscape Modeling” at GIS Section, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur from 6th to 26th September, 2011. Twenty four participants from ICAR, SAU’s, CAU’s and KVK’s from different parts of the India were participated in the winter school.
    4. Organized NNRMS (ISRO) sponsored training programme on "Geoinformatics for Land Resource Management" was organized at GIS Section from 9th to 29th March, 2011. In the training programme, 16 officers from different ICAR institutes, SAU’s, KVK’s and state universities participated.
    5. Organized ICAR Sponsored 21 days Winter School on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS Applications in Watershed Development" from 10th to 30th November 2009. Seventeen officers from ICAR Institutes/SAUs/CAUs and Central/State Govt. were participated training programme.
    6. Organized ICAR Sponsored 21 days Winter School on “Remote Sensing and GIS Application in Soil Land and Agriculture” from 9th February 2009 to 1st March 2009. Twenty three participants from ICAR and SAU's were trained in this training.
    7. Organized Three days training on “Use of Global Positioning System (GPS) in Resource Inventory” held during 23rd to 25th March 2006.
    8. Organized 21 days training on “Introduction to Arc GIS, Arc Catalog, Arc Map, Arc Edit, 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, and Geo-spatial database generation” held during 13th September to 5th October 2004 at GIS Section, Nagpur.
    9. Organized ICAR sponsored training on “Managing Geo-database using ArcSDE & Oracle” at National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP), Nagpur from 21st to 26th July 2003. 10 participants attended the training.
    10. Organized one week training on “Digitization of watershed maps” held during 2nd to 9th September 2002.
    11. Organized two days training on “Concepts on database generation in GIS” held during 22nd to 23rd August, 2002
    12. Organized two weeks training programme on “Digitization, Map Processing and Analysis in GIS” conducted at GIS Section for the technical personnel of Delhi and Calcutta Regional Centres in 2000.

    Training Undergone

    1. Sh. Nirmal Kumar attended completion workshop cum installation training of NAIP sponsored project “Strengthening Statistical Computing for NARS” at CIFE, Mumbai on 30th June, 2012
    2. Sh. Nirmal Kumar attended 5 day training programme on “Introduction to RISAT Applications” at RRSC, Nagpur from 14th to 19th February, 2011
    3. Mrs. Malathi Bommidi attended training programme on “Data Mining Using SAS” at IASRI, New Delhi from 06th to 11th February, 2012
    4. Sh. Nirmal Kumar attended 30 days “Trainers training Programme on Strengthening Statistical computing for NARS” held at CIFE, Mumbai during July 12 – August 13, 2010
    5. Sh. Nirmal Kumar attended two days installation training on “Strengthening Statistical computing for NARS” held at CIFE, Mumbai during June 16 – 17, 2010
    6. Mrs. Malathi Bommidi attended training programme on “IT based decision support system for e-learning content management” at NAARM, Hyderabad from 2nd to 8th June, 2010
    7. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended international training/ collaborative research programme in “Geoinformatics” as part of NAIP (HRD) sponsored programme at International Institute of Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation (ITC), The Netherlands from 3rd May to 31st July, 2010
    8. Sh. Nirmal Kumar, Scientist attended “Soil Survey Field Training” at NBSS&LUP Regional Center, Bangalore during April 27 – May 21, 2010
    9. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India sponsored training on “RISAT-UP Radar Remote Sensing & Applications” at Regional Remote Sensing Centre (RRSC), Nagpur from 22nd February to 5th March 2010
    10. Mr. Sunil Meshram was undergone training on “Web Design Methodologies and Protocols” at NAARM, Hyderabad from 8th to 18th September, 2009
    11. Mr. Sunil Meshram attended NNRMS/ISRO sponsored training on “Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Natural Resource Management” at NBSS&LUP, Nagpur from 20th March to 9th April, 2007
    12. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy undergone ICAR sponsored Summer School on “GIS Based Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Agriculture” at NAARM, Hyderabad from 5th to 25th July, 2006
    13. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended NATP (ICAR) sponsored training on “Web Design, Data Management and Data Mining” at Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute (IASRI), New Delhi from 1st to 3rd November, 2004
    14. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended 21 days training on “Introduction to Arc GIS, Arc Catalog, Arc Map, Arc Edit, 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, and Geo-spatial database generation” held during 13th September to 5th October 2004 at GIS Section, Nagpur
    15. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ICAR sponsored Winter School on “Remote Sensing and GIS in Agriculture Statistics” at Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute (IASRI), New Delhi from 6th to 26th August 2003
    16. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ICAR sponsored training on “Managing Geo-database using ArcSDE & Oracle” at National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP), Nagpur from 21st to 26th July 2003
    17. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended NATP (ICAR) sponsored training on Arc GIS, Arc Catalog, Arc Map, Arc Edit, 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Arc Networks and Geo-spatial Database Generation” at National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP), Nagpur from 7th to 20th October 2002
    18. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended Two days training on “Concepts on database generation in GIS” held during 22nd to 23rd August, 2002
    19. Dr. A.K Maji attended NATP-INARIS sponsored training at NIIT-Delhi from 17th to 25th June, 2002
    20. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended NATP-INARIS sponsored training at NIIT-Bangalore from 25th March to 24th April, 2002
    21. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ICAR sponsored Winter School on “GIS for Land Resource Data Management” at National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP), Regional Centre, Bangalore from 3rd to 23rd October 2001
    22. Shri Sunil Meshram attended a training on Digital mapping and GIS at NATMO, Kolkata from 2nd to 27th July, 2001
    23. Dr. A.K Maji was offered programme at CRC for tropical pathology, University of Queensland, Australia, on GIS based modelling in 2000
    24. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ICAR sponsored training on “Soil Survey and Land Evaluation” at National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP), Nagpur from 2nd November 1998 to 23rd January, 1999
    25. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India sponsored training on “Remote Sensing, Digital Image Processing and GIS” at National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, Hyderabad from 13th July to 25th September 1998
    26. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended NNRMS (ISRO) sponsored training on “Remote Sensing and GIS for Resources Mapping” at Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre (RRSSC), Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, Nagpur from 20th April to 1st May 1998
    27. Dr. G. P. Obi Reddy attended ICAR sponsored training on “Agricultural Research Information System (ARIS) Software Programme” at Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (ICAR), Bhopal from 4th to 12th September 1997.


     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division

    Post Graduate teaching and education

    • Approved Research guide of Nagpur University in faculty of Social Science (Geography).

    Training imparted

    • Cartography
    • Geomorphology
    • Climate
    • Associated as faculty for specialized training courses conducted by NBSS&LUP

    Institute level training programmes

    • Training cartographic staff of other Regional Centre in different softwares.

    Sponsored training programmes

     

    Linkages
     

    The division has developed Linkages with National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad, Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory (DARL), Pithoragarh., Central Soil and Water Conservation Research & Training Institute (CSWCR&TI), Dehradun, Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur and Punjab Agriculture University (PAU), Ludhiana under NATP, NAIP and other collaborative projects.


     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    Keeping in mind the multidisciplinary approaches and emerging areas GIS based applications in soils and natural resources management, the GIS Laboratory is maintaining linkages with many national and international institutes, such as

    • Central Soil and Water Conservation Research & Training Institute
    • Indian Institute of Soil Science
    • Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
    • Central Arid Zone Research Institute
    • National Research Center- Weed Science
    • National Natural Resource Management System (NNRMS), ISRO
    • National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)
    • National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC)
    • Space Application Centre (SAC)
    • State Agricultural Universities
    • National Informatics Centre (NIC)
    • International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
    • International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
    • ITC, The Netherlands


     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division

    • NATMO, Kolkata
    • Survey of India, Dehradun
    Future Thrust Areas
     
    1. Correlation studies between soil reflectance and soil properties
    2. Hyperspectral analysis for prediction of organic matter and other soil properties.
    3. Quantitative soil moisture estimation and development of models for soil moisture variability using RISAT data.


     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    • Development of advanced techniques in design and development of soil resources database at different scales in GIS
    • Development of digital techniques for soil resources mapping, and automation of land evaluation procedures using GIS techniques.
    • Agro-ecosystem based research on soils and land use systems.
    • Improved yield models by integration of biophysical simulation at regional/local/watershed level.
    • Develop new techniques in soil mapping at cadastral scale using high resolution satellite data in collaborative mode.
    • Processing of data through interactive tools of the GIS using macro languages for advanced analytical output.
    • Digitization of existing maps and reports produced since inception of NBSS&LUP.
    • Computer skills and Applications of GIS to be a taught at P.G. and U.G. syllabus for better human resource development.
    • Initiation of international collaborative projects in the fields of Natural Resource Management with ITC, The Netherlands; UNDP; CSIRO; ISRIC; AIT; ICRISAT; FAO.


     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division

    • Training in Computer aided Cartography
    • Research in GIS application in Cartography
    • Generation of Thematic Maps for different soil region.
    • Revision o the climatic soil data base bulletin No. 56 (1999)
    • Preparation of soil cartography manual for students and researchers
    • Digitization of all the available base maps
    Major Publications (Research papers/Reports/Technical Bulletins)
     

    Research Papers

    International Journals

    1. Saxena, R.K., Barthwal, A.K., Verma, K.S. and Sehgal, J.L. (1994). The role of landscape ecology in land degradation assessment. Asian-Pacific Remote Sensing J., 7:9-16.
    2. Verma, K.S., Saxena, R.K., Barthwal, A.K. and Deshmukh, S.N. (1994. Remote sensing technique for mapping salt-affected soils. Inter. J. Remote Sensing, 15:1901-1914.
    3. Saxena, R.K. and Verma, K.S. (1995). Use of remote sensing techniques at block level to characterise and delineate salt affected and sandy soils. Asia Pacific Remote Sensing Journal, 8:115-122.
    4. Jagdish Prasad; Srivastava, Rajeev and Chandran, P. (1998). Problems in classification of some Black cotton soils of India. Soil Survey Horizons 39(1): 23-26.
    5. Verma, K.S., Saxena, R.K., Hajare, T.N. and Ramesh Kumar, S.C. (1998). Gram yield estimation through SVI under variable soil and management conditions. Inter. J. Remote Sensing, 19:2469-2476.
    6. Saxena, R.K., Verma, K.S., Chary, G.R., Srivastava, Rajeev and Barthwal, A.K. (2000). IRS-1C data application in watershed characterization and management. Inter. J. Remote Sensing, 17:3197-3208.
    7. Verma, K.S., Saxena, R.K., Hajare, T.N., Kharche, V.K. and Ananta Kumari, P. (2002). Spectral response of Gram varieties under variable soil condition. Inter. J. Remote Sensing, 23:313-324.
    8. Saxena, R.K.; Verma, K.S.; Chary, G.R.; Srivastava, Rajeev and Barthwal, A.K (2000). IRS- 1C data applications in watershed characterization and management. Inter. J. of Remote Sensing 21(17): 3197-3208.
    9. Srivastava, Rajeev and Saxena, R.K. (2004). Technique of large-scale soil mapping in basaltic terrain using satellite remote sensing data. Inter. J. of Remote Sensing 25 (4):679-688.
    10. Jagdish Prasad and Srivastava, Rajeev (2010) Occurrence of Red Vertisols in Central India. Soil Survey Horizons 51:24-25.

    National Journals

    1. Verma, K.S.,Shyampura, R.L., and Jain, S.P. (1990) Characterization of soil under forest of Kashmir valley. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 38:107-115.
    2. Srivastava, Rajeev; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Prasad, Jagdish; and Nair, K.M. (1990) The Leptovertic Sub group : A proposed amendment to Soil Taxonomy. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 38 : 177-179.
    3. Srivastava, Rajeev; Prakash, O. and Sharma, A.K. (1991) Influence of Soil and Management on growth and Yield of wheat in foot-hill region of Uttar Pradesh. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 39: 374.
    4. Saxena, R.K., Verma, K.S. and Barthwal, A.K. (1991). Assessment of land degradation hazards, Etah district, Uttar Pradesh, using landsat data. Photonirvachak 19:83-94.
    5. Sohan Lal, Saxena, R.K. and Hirekerur, L.R. (1991). Soils of India - their problems and productivity. Soil Water Conserv. India, 35:162-177.
    6. Srivastava, Rajeev; Prasad, J. and Tamgadge, D.B. (1991) Soil-physiography relationships in Ujjain district of Madhya Pradesh for land Use Planning. The National Geographical Journal of India.37: 246-252.
    7. Srivastava, Rajeev; Gaikwad, S.T. and Jagat Ram (1991) Characteristics and classification of some forest soils of Chandrapur district, Maharashtra. Van Vigyan. 29(4):234-238.
    8. Saxena, R.K. (1992). Characterization and classification of soils of Ghaggar plains of Patiala, Punjab. Agropedology, 2:81-91.
    9. Srivastava, Rajeev; Prakash, O. and Manglik, V.P. (1992) Joint effects of maximum temperatures and rainfall on rice yield in foot-hill region of Uttar Pradesh. Naren¬dra Dev J. Agric. Res. 6(2): 243-249.
    10. Srivastava, Rajeev (1992) Soils of Buldhana district of Maharashtra for land use planning. Geographical Rev. of India. 54: 37-43.
    11. Srivastava, Rajeev and Jagdish Prasad (1992) Rationale in the taxonomic classification of some swell-shrink soils of semiarid tropics in India. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 40:600 -602.
    12. Prasad, Jagdish and Srivastava, Rajeev (1993) Physiography soil relationship in Dewas district of Madhya Pradesh for land use planning. Indian J. Landsc. Syst. Ecol. studies. 16 (2): 61- 65.
    13. Raj Kumar, Sidhu, G.S., Deshmukh, S.N. and Saxena, R.K. (1994). Formation, classification and potential productivity of soils of subtropical Bundelkhand region, India. Indian J. Agril. Chem., 95-103.
    14. Bhattacharyya, T., Srivastava, R., Sharma, J.P. and Sehgal, J.L. (1994) Classification of saline-sodic Vertisols in the coastal plains of Gujarat. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 42: 306-309.
    15. Satyavathi, P.L.A; Sharma, J.P. and Srivastava, R. (1994). Contribution of Soil Organic Matter, Clay and Silt to the Cation exchange capacity of Soil J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 42:14-17.
    16. Srivastava, R., Sarkar, Dipak, Thampi, C.J. and Haldar, A.K. (1994). Evaluation of Soil Site Suitability for Rice in Barddhaman district of West Bengal. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 42:665-668
    17. Nayak, D.C. and Srivastava, R. (1995). Soils of shifting cultivated area in Arunachal Pradesh and their suitabil¬ity for land use planning. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 43(2): 246-251.
    18. Prasad, J., Satyavathi, P.L.A., Srivastava, R. and Nair, K.M. (1995). Characterization of soils of Nashik dis¬trict, Maharashtra. Agropedology, 5:25-28.
    19. Sarkar, D., Khandare, N.C., Srivastava, R. and Goswami, A. (1995). Some dominant soils of Koraput district, Orissa - their characteristics, constraints and management needs. Indian J. Landsc. Syst. Ecol. Stud. 18 (2): 158- 164
    20. Srivastava, Rajeev, Chatterji, S., Sarkar, Dipak and Nayak, D.C. (1995). Numerical taxonomy of some rice growing soils of Bankura district of West Bengal. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 43:302-304.
    21. Bhaskar, B.P., Ravindra Chari, G. and Nagaraju, M.S.S. (1995) Agro-geographic characteristics of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Landscape System and Ecological Studies. 18(1): 72-77.
    22. Nagaraju, M.S.S., Chary,G.R. and Bhaskar, B.P.(1996) Crop concentration and diversification in the cotton zone of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J. Landscape Systems & Ecological Studies, 19:104-111.
    23. Saxena R.K., Harindranath C.S., Verma K.S. and Barthwal A.K. (1997) Role of soilscape in the management of wastelands.Indian J. Soil Conserv., 25:18-23.
    24. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, D., Gangopadhyay, S.K., Dubey, P.N., Baruah, U., Chamuah, G.S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Saxena, R.K., Barthwal, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Mandal, C., Sehgal, J., Bhowmick, K.R., Sinha, K., Chakraborty, S., Nandi Mazumdar, S., Pal, P.K., Krishna Kumar, A.K. and Sethuraj, M.R. (1998). Soils of Tripura-I. Characterization and Classification. Agropedology, 8:47-54.
    25. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, D., Gangopadhyay, S.K., Dubey, P.N., Baruah, U., Chamuah, G.S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Saxena, R.K., Barthwal, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Mandal, C., Sehgal, J., Bhowmick, K.R., Sinha, K., Chakraborty, S., Nandi Mazumdar, S., Pal, P.K., Krishna Kumar, A.K. and Sethuraj, M.R. (1998). Soils of Tripura-II. Suitability for Rubber. Agropedology, 8:55-60.
    26. Srivastava, R., Gaikawad, S.T. and Jagat Ram (1998). Water retention characteristics of some swell-shrink soils of Chandrapur district of Maharashtra. Agropedology 8 (1): 15-18.
    27. Bhaskar, B.P. and Nagaraju, M.S.S. (1998) Characterization of some salt affected soils occurring in the Chitravathi river basin of Andhra Pradesh Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 46(3): 416-421.
    28. Chaturvedi, A., and Barthwal, A.K. (1999). Land cover mapping of Chindwara district using remote sensing techniques. Ann. NAGI, 19:118-125.
    29. Saxena, R.K., Verma, K.S. and Kharche, V.K. (1999). Organic carbon stock in soils of Patiala district of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain. Agropedology, 9:131-142.
    30. Nagaraju, M.S.S. and Singa Rao, M. (2000) Effect of different plant population densities of groundnut on soil structure and other physical properties of an Inceptisol. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 48(1):174-177.
    31. Bhaskar, B. P., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Ravindra Chary, G., Reddy, R.S., Raghumohan, N.G. and Gajbhiye, K.S. Evaluation of production efficiency of cotton zone and rational land use in Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology (2000), 10: 44-52. 2000.
    32. Prasad, Jagdish; Nagaraju, M.S.S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Ray, S.K. and Chandran, P. (2001). Characteristics and classification of some orange growing soils in Nagpur district of Maharashtra. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 49(4): 735-739.
    33. Chaturvedi Arun and Thayalan, S. 2003. Eroded/degraded lands of north Deccan plateau and their utilization. Ann. Natl. Association of Geogr. India, XXIII(1):58-66.
    34. Saxena, R.K. (2003). Applications of remote sensing in soils and agriculture. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 51: 431-447.
    35. Saxena, R.K.; Verma, K.S.; Srivastava, Rajeev, Yadav, Janardan; Patel, N.K.; Nasre, R.A.; Barthwal, A.K.; Shiwalkar, A.A. and Londhe, S.L. (2003). Spectral reflectance properties of some dominant soils occurring on different altitudinal zones in Uttaranchal Himalayas Agropedology 13(2):35-43.
    36. Potdar, S.S., Srivastava, Rajeev, Nagaraju, M.S.S.; Jagdish Prasad and Saxena, R.K. (2003). Mapping of erosional soil loss in Nanda-Khairi watershed of Nagpur district of Maharashtra using remotely sensed data and GIS techniques. Agropedology 13(2):10-18.
    37. Saxena, R.K. (2003). Applications of remote sensing in soils and agriculture. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 51 (4): 431-447.
    38. Srivastava, Rajeev; Jagdish Prasad and Saxena, R.K. (2004). Spectral reflectance properties of some shrink-swell soils of Central India as influenced by soil properties. Agropedology 14 (1): 45- 54.
    39. Bhaskar, B.P., Saxena, R.K., Vadivelu, S., Baruah, U., Butte, P.S. and Dutta, D.P. (2004). Pedogenesis in high altitude soils of Meghalaya Plateau. Agropedology, 14(1):9-23.
    40. Bhaskar, B.P., Saxena, R.K., Vadivelu, S., Baruah, U., Butte, P.S. and Dutta, D.P. (2004). Pedogenesis in high altitude soils of Meghalaya plateau, Agropedology 14(1): 9-23.
    41. Chaturvedi Arun & S. Thayalan. (2004). Eroded/degraded lands of North Deccan Plateau and their Utilisation- A case study. Annals of National Association of Geographers, India. XXIII(1): 58-66.
    42. Solanke, P., Srivastava, Rajeev, Jagdish Prasad, Nagaraju, M.S.S., Saxena, R.K. and Barthwal, A.K. (2005). Application of remote sensing and GIS in watershed characterization and management. J. Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 33(2):239-244.
    43. Nikam, M.S.; Jagdish Prasad, Patil, N.G. and Srivastava, Rajeev (2006) Moisture retention characteristics of forest, grassland and cultivated non-vertic shallow soils in Nagpur district of central India. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 54(2): 240-242.
    44. Nikam, M.S.; Patil, N.G., Jagdish Prasad and Srivastava, Rajeev (2006) Water retention characteristics of shallow soils of basaltic origin in Nagpur district. Indian J. Soil Conservation 34 (3): 229-232.
    45. Lingade, S.R. Srivastava, Rajeev, Jagdish Prasad and Saxena, R.K. (2008) Occurrence of sodic Vertisols in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 56(2): 231-232.
    46. Patil, N.G., Jagdish Prasad, Srivastava, Rajeev and Nikam, M.S. (2008). Evaluation of different water retention functions for shallow soils of Nagpur district, Maharashtra. Journal of Water Management, 16(2):71-79.
    47. Shukla, E.A.; Jagadish Prasad, Nagaraju, M.S.S.; Srivastava, Rajeev and Kaurav, B.L. (2009) Use of remote sensing in characterisation and management of Dhamni micro-watershed of Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 37:173-181.
    48. Patil, N.G., Jagdish Prasad, Srivastava, Rajeev and Dhale, S.A. (2009) Estimation of water retention characteristics of shrink-swell soils using pedotransfer functions. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 57(3): 273-279.
    49. Das, D.K., Bandyopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, D. and Srivastava, Rajeev (2009) Application of modern techniques in characterization and management of soil and water resources. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 57(4): 445-460.
    50. Kashiwar, D.Y, Nagaraju, M.S.S., Srivastava, Rajeev, Jagdish Prasad, Ramamurthy, V. and Barthwal, A.K. (2009) Characterization, evaluation and management of Salai watershed in Nagpur district of Maharashtra using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Agropedology 19 (1): 15-23.
    51. Nagaraju, M.S.S., Srivastava, Rajeev, Barthwal, A.K. and Maji, A.K. (2009) Characterization and Evaluation of Land Resources for Management of Chandanpardi Watershed in Basaltic Terrain of Nagpur District of Maharashtra using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of Water Management 17(1): 1-11.
    52. Girish, B., Patil, Nagaraju, M.S.S., Jagdish Prasad and Rajeev Srivastava (2009). Characterization, evaluation and mapping of land resources in Lendi watershed, Chandrapur district of Maharashtra using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science (Accepted).
    53. Nagaraju, M.S.S., G.P. Obi Reddy A.K. Maji, Rajeev Srivastava, P. Raja and A.K. Barthwal (2009) Soil Loss Mapping for Sustainable Development and Management of Land Resources in Warora Tehsil of Chandrapur District of Maharashtra : An Integrated Approach using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing (Accepted).
    54. Shweta A. Ardak, M.S.S. Nagaraju, Jagdish Prasad, Rajeev Srivastava And A.K. Barthwal (2009) Characterization and evaluation of land resources in Khapri village of Nagpur district, Maharashtra using high resolution satellite data and GIS. Agropedology (Revised).
    55. Shilpa S. Patil, M.S.S. Nagaraju and Rajeev Srivastava (2010) Characterization and evaluation of land resources of basaltic terrain for watershed management using remote sensing and GIS. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 38(1): 16-23.

    Reports / Bulletin

    1. Harmonisation of wasteland with soil degradation datasets in Salem district, Tamil Nadu (1997). Report No. 829. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur.35p +3 maps.
    2. Harmonisation of wasteland with soil degradation datasets in Pune district, Maharashtra (1998), Report No. 831, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur.10p +6 maps.
    3. Harmonisation of wasteland with soil degradation datasets in Udaipur district, Rajasthan (2000), Report No. 830, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur. 15p.
    4. Characterization of Jhilpi Watershed using IRS-1C data (2004) Report No.828, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, 79p.
    5. Salt affected soils, Etah district (Uttar Pradesh). NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 108, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, pp.85.
    6. Reflectance libraries for development of soil sensor for periodic assessment of state of soil resources (2005) Report No. 835, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur. 40p.
    7. Standardization of methodology for large scale soil mapping- a collaborative project between NBSS&LUP and NRSA (2005). Report No. 907, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur.75p.
    8. Modelling the spatial variability of soil loss estimation in a watershed near Nagpur using remote sensing and GIS (2005). Report no. 933, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur. 48p.
    9. Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains (2007) National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur. 25p.
    10. Assessment of soil erosion risk and land quality in Warora tehsil, Chandrapur district, Maharashtra. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur (2008).
    11. Land Resources and their Evaluation for Land Use Planning in Basaltic Terrain using Remote Sensing and GIS (2008) National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur. 43p.
    12. Soil variability mapping and fertility zonation using hyperspectral data- A collaborative project between NBSS&LUP, Nagpur and SAC, Ahmedabad (2010) Project Report. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur. 33p.


     

    GIS Lab - RSA Division

    1. Obi Reddy, G.P., Sarkar, Dipak, Jagdish Prasad and Ramamurthy, V. (2013). Geospatial modeling in assessment of biophysical resources for sustainable land resource management, Tropical Ecology 54(2): 213-226.
    2. Vishal, M.K. Aishwath, O.P., Singh, R., Mehta, R.S., Mishra, B.K., Obi Reddy, G.P. and Nirmal Kumar (2013). Spatial and Temporal assessment of area, production and productivity of cumin in Rajasthan. International Journal of Seed Spices, 3(1): 70-76
    3. Dongare, Vishakha T., Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., and Ramteke, I.K. (2013). Characterization of Landforms and Soils in Complex Geological Formations—A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Volume 41(1), 91-104.
    4. Obi Reddy, G.P., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Ramteke, I.K. and Sarkar, Dipak (2012). Terrain Characterization for Soil Resource Mapping Using IRS-P6 Data and GIS - A Case Study From Basaltic Terrain of Central India, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Volume 41(2), 331-343.
    5. Nirmal Kumar, Obi Reddy, G.P., Chatterjee, S. and Sarkar, Dipak (2012). An application of ID3 decision tree algorithm for land capability classification, Agropedology. 22(1): 35-42.
    6. Ramamurthy, V., Naidu, L. G. K., Srinivas, S., Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sarkar, Dipak (2012). Delineation of potential areas for safflower production in Deccan Plateau. J. Oilseeds Res., 29: 226-233.
    7. Chaturvedi, Arun, Obi. Reddy, G.P., Srivastava, Rajeev and Maji, A.K. (2012). Remote sensing and GIS applications in rainfed agriculture management. J. Soil and water conservation, Vol. 11 No.2, pp 174-180.
    8. Walke, Nilesh, Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K. and Thayalan, S. (2012). GIS based multi-criteria overlay analysis in soil-suitability valuation for Cotton (Gossypium spp.): A case study in black soil region of Central India. Computers and Geosciences. 41: 108-118.
    9. Nagaraju, M.S S., Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Srivastava, Rajeev, Raja, P. and Barthwal, A.K. (2011). Soil Loss Mapping for Sustainable Development and Management of Land Resources in Warora Tehsil of Chandrapur District of Maharashtra: An Integrated Approach Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No.1, 51-61.
    10. Bobade, S.V., Bhaskar, B.P., Gaikwad, M.S., Raja, P., Gaikwad, S.S., Anantwar, S.G., Patil, S.V., Singh, S.R. and Maji, A.K. (2010). A GIS-based land use suitability assessment in Seoni district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Tropical Ecology, 51(1):41-54.
    11. Dheeravath, V., Thenkabail, P.S., Chandrakantha, G., Noojipady, P., Reddy, G.P.O., Biradar, C.M., Gumma, M.K. and Velpuri, M. (2010). Irrigated areas of India derived using MODIS 500 m time series for the years 2001-2003. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sen. 65(1), 42-59.
    12. Gangopadhyay, S.K., Obi Reddy, G.P., Sarkar, D., Srinivas, C.V. and Khan, I.Q. (2010). Soil suitability evaluation using remotely sensed data and GIS – A case study from semi-arid tropics of India. International Journal of Geoinformatics, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 35-47.
    13. Srinivas C.V., Vittal Murthy, K.P.R., Krishna Murthy, Y.V.N., Raja, P. and Obi Reddy P. (2010). A study of atmosphere – biosphere exchange of CO2 in a tropical Indian region using NOAA AVHRR data and field observations. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics, Vol. 10, No.3, pp.35-47.
    14. Prasand S. Thenkabail, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Praveen Noojipady, Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Yuanjie Li, Manohar Velpuri, Muralikrishna Gumma, Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta, Hugh Turral, Xurliang L. Cai, Jagath Vithanage, Mitchell A. Schull and Rishiraj Dutta (2009). Global Irrigated Area map (GIAM) Derived from Remote Sensing for the end of the last Millennium, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 30, No.14, 20 July, pp 3679-3733.
    15. Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Prasand S. Thenkabail, Praveen Noojipady, Yuanjie Li, Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Hugh Turral, Manohar Velpuri, Murali K Gumma, Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta, Xurliang L. Cai, Xiangming Xiao, Mitchell A. Schull, Ranjith D Alankara, Sarath Gunasingh, Sadir Mohideen (2009). A global map of rainfed cropland areas (GMRCA) at the end of last millennium using remote sensing, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 11, 2009, pp.114-129.
    16. Prasand S. Thenkabail, Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta, Praveen Noojipady, Chnadrakantha Gurappa, Manohar Velpuri, Muralikrishna Gumma and Yuanjie Li (2009). Irrigated Area maps and Statistics of India using Remote sensing and National Statistics, Sensors, Vol. 1, pp.50-67.
    17. Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Vadivelu, S., Ramamurthy, V., Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Srinivas, S. and Maji, A.K. (2008). Monitoring soil quality changes in relation to land use and management. Agropedology, Vol.18:50-57.
    18. Ramamurthy, V., Ramesh Kumar, S.C., Naidu, L.G.K., Vadivelu, S., Maji, A.K. and Parhad, V.N. (2007). Agribusiness opportunities in promoting vermicompost in citrus cultivation in Maharashtra. Agril. Economics Res. Rev., 20:608.
    19. Singh, R.S., Dubey, P.N., Sen, T.K. and Maji, A.K. (2006). Distribution of potassium in soils of Manipur encompassing physiographic and hydrothermal variations. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. Vol.54(2):
    20. Singh, K.N., Raju, N.S., Subba Rao, A., Rathode, Abhishek, Srivastava, Sanjay, Samanta, R.K. and Maji, A.K. (2006). Prescribing optimum doses of nutrient for targeted yield through soil fertility map in Andhra Pradesh. J. Ind. Soc. Agril. Statistics. Vol.59(2):131-140.
    21. Maji, A.K., Obi Reddy, G.P., Tamgadge, D.B and Gajbhiye, K. S (2005). Spatial Modeling for Crop Suitability Analysis Using AGROMA GIS software, Asian Journal of Geoinformatics, Vol. 5 (3), pp 47-56.
    22. Maji, A.K., Obi Reddy, G.P., Thayalan, S and Walke, N.J. (2005). Characterization and Classification of Landforms and Soils over Basaltic Terrain in Sub-humid Tropics of Central India, Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, Vol 53 (2), pp-154-162.
    23. Maji, A.K., Obi Reddy, G.P., Thayalan, S. and Walke, N.J. (2005). GIS based approach in soil suitability evaluation for cotton in black soils of sub-humid tropics of central India. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., Vol.53(2):154-162.
    24. Maji, A.K., Obi Reddy, G.P., Tamgadge, D.B and Gajbhiye, K. S (2004). GIS based Soil Resource Information System and Modeling for Crop Suitability Analysis - A Case study, Asian Journal of Geoinformatics, Vol.5(3), pp.47-56.
    25. Obi Reddy, G.P., Sambasiva Rao, M. and Maji, A.K. (2004). Delineation and prioritization of macro watersheds in Semi-Arid Anantapur district, Andhara Pradesh, Geographical Review of India, Vol.66 No.1 PP.72-83.
    26. Obi Reddy, Gangalakunta, P., Maji, Amal Kumar and Gajbhiye, Kothiram S. (2004). Drainage morphometry and its influence on landform characteristics in a basaltic terrain, central India – remote sensing and GIS approach. Int. J. Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 6:1-16.
    27. Raghavendra Reddy, M.G., Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K and Nageshwara Rao, K. (2004). Land Evaluation for Cotton Suitability in a part of Eastern Maharashtra Plateau using Remote Sensing and GIS, AgroPedology, Vol.14(1), pp.25-31.
    28. Obi Reddy Gangalakunta, P., Maji, Amal K. and Gajbhiye Kothiram S. (2004). Drainage Morphometry and Its Influence on Landform Characteristics in Basaltic Terrain – A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformatics, Vol.6, pp.1-16.
    29. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Maji, A.K. (2004). Characterization of Biophysical Land Units using Remote Sensing and GIS, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing, Vol., 32, No.2, pp.159-165.
    30. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Chary, G.R., Srinivas, C.V., Tiwary, P. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). GIS and Remote sensing Applications in Prioritization of River sub basins using Morphometric and USLE Parameters - A Case study. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics, Vol.4 No.4 pp. 35-49.
    31. Raghavendra Reddy, M.G., Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K and Nageshwara Rao, K. (2003). Landscape Analysis for Pedo-Geomorphological Characterization in part of Basaltic Terrain, Central India using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing, Vol., 31, (4), pp.271-282.
    32. Raghavendra Reddy, M.G., Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K and Nageshwara Rao, K. (2003). Land Evaluation and Suitability Analysis for Cotton in Black Soils of part of Eastren Maharashtra Plateau using Remote Sensing and GIS. Agropedology, Vol., 14 (1) pp. 25-31.
    33. Vadivelu, S., Baruah, U., Bhaskar, B.P., Thampi, J., Sarkar, D., Walia, C.S., Nayak, D.C. and Maji, A.K. (2003). A land use plan of Jorhat district of Assam state. Agropedology, 13(1):1-10.
    34. Sen, T.K., Dubey, P.N., Nayak, D.C., Baruah, U., Bhattacharyya, T., Maji A.K. and Velayutham, M. (2003). Soil resource information for agricultural planning and development of Assam. Agropedology, 13(1):50-59.
    35. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Maji, A.K. (2003). Delineation and Characterization of Geomorphological features in a part of Lower Maharahstra Metamorphic Plateau, using IRS-ID LISS-III data. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing, Vol., 31, (4), pp.159-165.
    36. Maji, A.K. and Singh, R.S. (2002). Evaluation of site and soils for suitability of citrus in Meghalaya state. Indian J. Citriculture, Vol.1(1):46-50.
    37. Krishna, N.D.R., Rao, B.S.P., Maji, A.K., Velautham, M. and Srinivas, C.V. (2002). Geostats for Mapping Length of Growing Period in a Tropical Environment, state of Andhra Pradesh, India., Asian Journal of Geoinformatics,Vol., 2, (4), pp. 53-62.
    38. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Srinivas, C.V. and Velayutham, M. (2002). Geomorphological Analysis for Inventory of Degraded Lands in a River basin of Basaltic Terrain, Using Remote Sensing Data and Geographical Information Systems, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing,Vol.30, No.1&2, pp.15 -31.
    39. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2002). GIS for Morhophometric Analysis of River basins. GIS India, Vol.11 (9), pp.9-14.
    40. Srinivas, C.V., Maji, A.K., Obi Reddy, G.P. and Chary, G.R. (2002). Assessment of Soil Erosion Using Remote sensing and GIS in Nagpur District, Maharashtra, for Prioritization and Delineation of Conservation Units, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing, Vol.30, (4), pp.197-211.
    41. Krishna N.D.R., Maji, A.K., Krishna Murty, Y.V.N. and Rao, B.S.P. (2001). Remote Sensing and GIS for Canopy cover mapping., Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing,Vol., 29 (3), pp. 107-113.
    42. Maji, A.K., Nayak, D.C., Krishna N.D.R., Srinivas, C.V., Kamble, K., Obi Reddy, G.P. and Velayutham, M. (2001). Soil information system of Arunachal Pradesh in GIS environment for land use planning. Int. J. Applied Earth Observation and Geo-Information (ITC Journal), Vol.3(1):69-77.
    43. Maji, A.K., Srinivas, C.V., Dubey, P.N., Obi Reddy, G.P., Kamble, K.H. and Velayutham, M. (2001). Soil Resource Information System for Nagaland in GIS for Land use planning in Mountainous Region, GIS India, Vol., 11 (4), pp. 13-16.
    44. Obi Reddy G.P., Maji A.K, Srinivas C.V, Thayalan S and Velayutham, M (2001). Remote sensing and GIS Applications for Landscape Ecological Planning in a Basaltic Terrain, Central India, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing,Vol., 29 (1&2), pp. 3-16.
    45. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Srinivas, C.V., Thayalan, S. and Velayutham, M. (2001). Landscape ecological planning in a basaltic terrain, Central India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing, Vol.29(1&2):3-16.
    46. Gangopadhyay, S.K., Baruah, U., Nayak, D.C., Sen, T.K., Singh, R.S., Maji A.K. and Sarkar, D. (2000). Soils of North-Eastern India – their characteristics, problems and potential. Indian Journal of Landscape System, 22:65-75.
    47. Obi Reddy, G.P., Esther Shekinah, D., Maurya, U.K., Thayalan, S., Jagdish Prasad, Ray, S.K. and Bhaskar, B.P. (2000). Landscape-soil relationship in a part of Bazargaon plateau, Maharashtra. Geographical Review of India, Vol., 61(3):280-291.
    48. Obi Reddy, G.P., Sambasiva Rao, M. and Maji, A.K. (2000). Land capability of Narayanappa Kunta micro-watershed, Anantapur district (A.P.).Geographical Review of India, Vol., 62:126-134.
    49. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sambasiva Rao, M. (1999). Environmental Impact Assessment using Remote sensing data- A case study. The Geographical Review, Vol.61, (1), pp.14-21.
    50. Obi Reddy, G.P., Chandramouli, K., Srivastav, S.K., Maji, A.K. and Srinivas, C. (1999). Evaluation of Groundwater potential zones using Remote sensing data - A case study. , Journal of the Indian Society of Remote sensing,Vol., 28 (1), pp. 19-32.
    51. Sen, T.K., Baruah, U., Maji, A.K., Chamuah, G.S. and Sehgal, J. (1996). Remote Sensing Approach to Detect Temporal Change in the course of Brahmaputra River. Agropedology. 6 (1):23-28.
    52. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, D., Gangopadhyay, S.K., Dubey, P.N., Baruah, U., Chamuah, G.S., Mukhopadyay, S., Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Saxena, R.K., Barathwal, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Mandal, C., Sehgal, J., Bhowmick, K.R, Sinha, K., Chakrabarthy, R., Majumdhar, S.N., Pal, P.K., Krishnakumar, A.K. and Sethuraj, M.R. (1998) Soils of Tripura, I- Characterisation and classification, Agropedology, vol. 8(1), 47-55.
    53. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, D., Gangopadhyay, S.K., Dubey, P.N., Baruah, U., Chamuah, G.S., Mukhopadyay, S., Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Saxena, R.K.,. Barathwal, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Mandal, C., Sehgal, J., Bhowmick, K.R., Sinha, K., Chakrabarthy, R., Majumdhar, S.N., Pal, P.K., Krishnakumar, A.K. and Sethuraj, M.R. (1998) Soils of Tripura, II- Suitability for Rubber, Agropedology, vol. 8(1), 55-60.
    54. Maji, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R. and Challa, O. (1998) Geographical Information System in Analysis and Interpretation of Soil Resource Data for Land Use Planning. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 46(2), 260-263
    55. Maji, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Sehgal, J. and Velayutham, M. (1998). Dissemination of Soil Information for District Level Planning using GIS. GIS India. Vol. 7:21-25, Hyderabad.
    56. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sambasiva Rao, M. (1997). Environmental impact assessment studies and conservation of natural resources of Anantapur district, India, using Remote sensing data. National Geographer, Vol. XXXII, (2),, pp.151-157.
    57. Sen T.K., Nayak, D.C., Singh, R.S., Dubey, P.N., Maji, A.K., Chamuah, G.S. and Sehgal, J. (1997). Pedology and Edaphology of some Benchmarck Acid Soils of North-Eastern India. J.Ind.Soc. Soil Sci. 45:782-790
    58. Sen, T.K., Dubey, P.N., Maji, A.K., Chamuah, G.S. (1997). Status of Micronutrients in some dominant soil of Manipur. J.Ind. Soc. Sci. 45(2): 388-390.
    59. Maji, A.K. and Krishna, N.D.R. (1996). Application of Geographical Information System in Soil Resource Management. Agropedology. 6(2):75-78.
    60. Maji, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Sehgal, J. (1993). Soils of the Hill Lands and Their Suitability for Alternative Land Use Planning, J. Ind. Hill. Farm 6 : 63-68.
    61. Baruah, U. Chamuah, G.S. and Maji, A.K. (1992). Variability in Surface Soil Properties Related to Geomorphology in North Eastern India. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci., 40:881-884.
    62. Maji, A.K. (1992). A computerised Approach for Physical Suitability Evaluation of Lands of Singhik Subwatershed, Sikkim. Agropedology, 2; 37-44.
    63. Maji, A.K. (1992). Economic Suitability Evaluation of Lands Using ALES Program, J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 40; 527-533.
    64. Sen, T.K., Pandey, L.M., Sehgal, J. and Maji, A.K. (1992). Satellite Remote Sensing in Soil Resource Inventory of Dibrugarh District (Part), Assam.Photonirvachak, J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing, 20 : 95-104.
    65. Maji, A.K. and Sengupta, M.B. (1982). Studies on Potassium in Soils:- 1.Quantity-Intensity Relationship, J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 30:494-496.
    66. Sengupta, M.B. and Maji, A.K. (1981). Effect of Mineral Fertilizer Application on the Potassium Content in Wheat and the Influence of RNA Treatment on K Uptake. Indian Pot. Jour. 4: 5-11.
    67. Sengupta, M.B. and Maji A.K. (1977). Behaviour of Ammonium and Phosphate in Sodic Soils and Their Availability to Wheat. Fertilizer Tech. 14, 38-42.

    Reports / Bulletin

    1. G.P. Obi Reddy, Nirmal Kumar and Dipak Sarkar (2012). Training Manual on GIS and Digital Image Processing, NBSS Publ. No. 153, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 166.
    2. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar (Eds) (2012). Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS Publ. No. 152, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 300.
    3. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar, (2012). Compendium on Human Resource Development in Remote Sensing and GIS in Natural Resource Management, NBSS Publ. No. 150, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 88.
    4. A.K. Maji, G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar, (2012). Acid Soils of India – Their Extent and Spatial Variability, NBSS Publ. No. 145, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, p. 138.
    5. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar, (2012). Assessment of Soil Loss for Prioritization of Sub Watersheds – A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach, NBSS Publ. No. 137, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 55.
    6. A.K. Maji, G.P. Obi Reddy, Dipak Sarkar. (2010). Degraded and Wastelands of India: Status and Spatial Distribution. ICAR, NARS joint publication. pp.158.
    7. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Thayalan, S. and Ramamurthy, V. (2008). Ecological evaluation of land resources and land use systems for sustainable development at watershed level in different agro-ecological zones of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra using remote sensing and GIS techniques, NBSS Publ. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur. pp.270.
    8. Singh, M.V., Nayyar, V.K. and Maji, A.K. (2008). Zinc fertility status in soils of Punjab. Micronutrient Fertility Mapping for Indian Soils. Tech. Bulletin AICRP, Micronutrients, IISS, Bhopal 7, p.1-60.
    9. Singh, K.N., Raju, N.S., Srivastava, Sanjay, Subba Rao, A., Rathore, Abhishek, , and Maji, A.K. (2007). Prescription of optimum doses of fertilizers for targeted yields of crops through soil fertility map in different states of India. Indian Institute of Soil Science and National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning Publ., pp.18.
    10. Sharma, P.D., Baruah, T.C., Maji, A.K. and Ram Pati (2006). Management of Acid Soils in NEH Region. ICAR Publ. pp.14.
    11. Sahoo, A.K., Sarkar, Dipak, Sah, K.D., Maji, A.K. and Dhyani, B.L. (2006). Soil Erosion of Bihar. NBSS Publ.125, p.49.
    12. Sen, T.K., Baruah, U., Sarkar, D., Maji, A.K. and Patil, V.P. (2006). Soil Series of Manipur, NBSS Publ. 134, p. 53.
    13. Ramamurthy, V., Gajbhiye, K.S., Sohan Lal and Maji, A.K. (2006). Land Resource Management through Technology Assessment and Refinement. NBSS Pub. No. 133. 106 pp.
    14. Sahoo, A. K., Sarkar, Dipak , Sah, K. D., Maji, A.K. and Dhyani, B.L. (2006). Soil Erosion of Orissa. NBSS Publ. 126, NBSS & LUP (ICAR), Nagpur, 48p.
    15. Sen, T.K., Ram Babu, Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Walia, C.S., Baruah, U. and Sarkar, D. (2005). Soil Erosion of Assam, NBSS Publ.118, p.41.
    16. Maji, A.K., Baruah, U., Dubey, P.N., Verma, T.P., Bute, P., Shila Kiku and Angami, V. (2004). Soil Series of Nagaland. NBSS Publ.109, p.126.
    17. Tamgadge, D.B., Tiwari, A.K. and Maji, A.K. (2003). Soil Erosion – Chhattisgarh. NBSS Publ. 103, p.30+ 1 map.
    18. Tamgadge, D.B., Tiwari, A.K., Maji, A.K. and Mondal, C. (2003). Soil Erosion – Madhya Pradesh. NBSS Publ. 106, p.78.
    19. Shyampura, R.L., Singh, R.S., Singh, R.K. and Maji, A.K. (2003). Soil Erosion – Rajasthan. NBSS Publ. 102, p.35+ 1 map.
    20. Maji, A.K. and Sehgal, J. (2001). Soils of Mizoram for Optimising Land Use Plan. NBSS Publ. No.75b, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur.
    21. Sen, T.K., Maji, A.K., Chamuah, G.S. and Sehgal, J. (2000). Soils of Manipur for Optimising Land Use Plan. NBSS Publ., 56b. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur.
    22. Maji, A.K. and Sehgal, J. (2000). Soils of Nagaland for Optimising Land Use Plan. NBSS Publ. 67b, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, 54p. + 1 sheet.
    23. Singh, R.S., Maji, A.K. and Sehgal, J. (1999). Soils of Meghalaya for Optimising Land Use Plan. NBSS Publ. 52b, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, 44p + 1 sheet.
    24. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, D., Maji, A.K., Chamuah, G.S. and Sehgal, J. (1996). Soils of Tripura for Optimising Land Use Plan with particular reference to Rubber. NBSS Publ. 65.
    25. Maji, A.K., Shyampura, R.L., Sehgal, J. and Krishna, N.D.R. (1996). Soil Based district Level Land Use Planning- Udaipur, Dist. Rajastan. NBSS Publ. 63, 1996.
    26. Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K. and Sehgal, J. (1995). Soils of Arunachal Pradesh for Optimising Land Use Plan. NBSS Publ. 55b, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, p.54 + 1 sheet.
    27. Sen, T.K., Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K. and Chamuah, G.S. (1993). Pedogenic Characteristics of Some Red Soils of Manipur. Red and Lateritic Soils of India Resource Appraisal and Management, NBSS Publ: 37, 62-67.
    28. Maji, A.K. and Van Wambeke, A. (1993). ALES- A Microcomputer Based Framework for Land Evaluation. Land Evaluation for Land Use Planning, NBSS Publ. 42; 155-159.
    29. Haldar, A.K., Sarkar, D. and Maji, A.K. <strong>(1993)</strong>. Soils of West Bengal for Optimising Land Use Plan. NBSS Publ. 27 B.

    Popular Articles

    1. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sarkar, Dipak (2012). Land degradation, environment and food security, Geography and You, Vol. 12, Issue 73, July-August, 2012 p. 6-9.
    2. Hajare, T.N., Venugopalan, M.V., Patil, N.G. and Maji, A.K. (2008). Mathi pariksha (Marathi). Jaminichi Arogya Patrika, Vibhagiya Krushi Sahasanchalak, Nagpur. Pp 13-19.
    3. Jagdhish Prasad and G.P. Obi Reddy (2006). Dhan, Muowa, Avam Tendu: Adivasion ka Jeevan, Krushi Vistar Shamisha, Krshi Mantralay, New Delhi, July-December, 2006, Vol.16 No.1, 2006, pp.33-39.
    4. Maji, A.K. and Chaturvedi, Arun. (2000). Geo informatics for land management in Nagpur. Zero-mile, Souvenir, Indian Geography Congress.
    5. Maji, A.K. (2000). Soil information system at NBSS&LUP. Perspectives and policies for land use planning. Souvenir, 65th Annual Convention of ISSS.
    1. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sarkar, Dipak (2012). Geospatial technologies in characterization of land use system and analysis of their spatio-temporal dynamics in hot sub-humid ecosystem of central India. In: Agro-informatics and Precision Agriculture 2012, (P. Krishna Reddy et. al. eds.), pp.205.
    2. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). Geomorphological processes and evolution of landforms, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 26-35.
    3. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). Principles and concepts of GIS, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 69-77.
    4. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). Principles of digital image processing, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 86-97.
    5. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012).Digital Elevation Models- Sources and resolutions, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 121-125.
    6. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012).Principles and applications of digital terrain analysis, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 129-135.
    7. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). Extraction of terrain variables from DEM, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 140-146.
    8. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). GIS and remote sensing applications in watershed hydrology, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 159-173.
    9. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). Advances of GIS and remote sensing in hydro-geomorphology, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 184-193.
    10. Obi Reddy, G.P. (2012). Conceptual design of soil information system – A Geoportal, In: Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152 (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), pp 217-226.
    11. Nirmal Kumar (2012). Overview of GIS and image processing software’s. In Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), NBSS Publ. No. 152, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 113.
    12. Nirmal Kumar (2012). Geostatistics in digital terrain analysis. In Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), NBSS Publ. No. 152, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 147.
    13. Nirmal Kumar (2012). Remote sensing and GIS applications in LULC analysis. In Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling (Eds. G.P. Obi Reddy and Dipak Sarkar), NBSS Publ. No. 152, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp. 254.
    14. Obi Reddy, G.P. and Sarkar, Dipak (2013). Remote sensing and GIS for spatial decision support in sustainable land resource management, In: Geospastail Technologies for Natural Resource Management (Eds: S.K. Soam et al.,), pp. 259-277.
    15. Nirmal Kumar, R.N. Sahoo, N.K. Sinha (2012). Discriminating Different Tillage: Through remote sensing approach, Lambert Academic publishers, Germany, pp 92.
    16. Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Prasand S. Thenkabail, Praveen Noojipady, Y.J.Li., Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Manohar Velpuri, Hugh Turral, Xueliang L. Cai, Muralikrishna Gumma, Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta, Mitchell A. Schull, Ranjit D. Alankara, Sarath Gunasinghe and Xianguing Xiao (2009). Global Map of Rainfed Cropland Areas (GMRCA) and Statistics using Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security (Eds: Prasand S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Hugh Turral and Chandrashekhar M. Biradar), Tylor and Francis Series in Remote sensing Applications (Book Series Editor: Qihao Weng), CRC Press, London, pp 357-392.
    17. Y.J.Li., Prasand S. Thenkabail, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Praveen Noojipady, Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Manohar Velpuri, Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta and Xueliang L. Cai (2009). A History of irrigated areas of the world, Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security (Eds: Prasand S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Hugh Turral and Chandrashekhar M. Biradar), Tylor and Francis Series in Remote sensing Applications (Book Series Editor: Qihao Weng), CRC Press, London, pp 14-40.
    18. Maji, A.K. and G.P. Obi Reddy (2009). GIS Applications in Soil Survey and Mapping, Soil Survey Manual, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 146 (Eds. Bhattacharyya et al., 2009), Pp. 202-214.
    19. Maji, A.K. and Obi Reddy, G.P. (2009) GIS Applications in soil survey and mapping, Soil Survey Mannual, NBSS&LUP, Pub. No. 146 (Eds. Bhattacharya et. al. 2009), PP 202-214.
    20. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Jagdish Prasad, Ramamurthy, V. And Ramteke, I.K. (2009). Geo-spatial resource database for carrying capacity based resource planning – Remote sensing and GIS approach. Information technology in agriculture: The fifth international conference of the asian federarion for information technology in agriculture. Macmillan Publishers, India (Eds: V.C Patil and Seishi Ninomiya), pp.181-201.
    21. Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta, Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Prasand S. Thenkabail, G. Chandrakantha, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Praveen Noojipady, Manohar Velpuri and Maji Amal Kumar (2009). Global irrigated area Mapping (GIAM) and Statistics using Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security (Eds: Prasand S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Hugh Turral and Chandrashekhar M. Biradar), Tylor and Francis Series in Remote sensing Applications (Book Series Editor: Qihao Weng), CRC Press, London, pp 139-176.
    22. Prasand S. Thenkabail, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Praveen Noojipady, Venkateswarlu Dheeravath, Muralikrishna Gumma, Y.J.Li., Manohar Velpuri and Obi Reddy P. Gangalakunta (2009). Global irrigated area Mapping (GIAM) and Statistics using Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security (Eds: Prasand S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Hugh Turral and Chandrashekhar M. Biradar), Tylor and Francis Series in Remote sensing Applications (Book Series Editor: Qihao Weng), CRC Press, London, pp 41-120.
    23. Maji, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2008). Soil quality and land degradation in the Western India. Natural Resources management for Sustainable Development in Western India. (Ed. Prasad et al) Allied Publishers Private Limited New Delhi. P 30-33.
    24. Obi Reddy, G. P. Maji A. K. and Gajbhiye, K. S. (2008). Role of Geoinformatics in Micro-level Planning for Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Geoinformatics for Decentralized Planning and Governance (Edited by M. S. Nathawat and A. C. Pandey). 1st ed. Jaipur, Rawat Publications, 2008. xiv, 448 p. ills. maps. 22 cm, ISBN: 813160117X KK-66051.
    25. Maji, A.K. (2006). Computer simulated model for selection of aquaculture sites in bio-informatics and statistics in fisheries research. Vol.II, CIFA Publication, Bhubaneshwar.
    26. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Thayalan, S. And Ramamurthy, V. (2005). Land transformation processes and issues for geographical research – scope of remote sensing and GIS applications. BSP publications, Hyderabad, India, (Eds; N.C. Gautam and V. Raghava Swamy), pp: 41-58.
    27. Chakraborty, S., Ghosh, R., Ghosh, M., Maji, A.K., White, N., Farnandes, C.D., Charchar, M.J., Ramesh, C.R. and Kelemu, S. (2004). Weather dependency of Anthracnose and risk mapping in high yielding Anthracnose-Resistant stylosanthes for agricultural systems. Ed. S. Chakraborty. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Monograph No. 111. p. 203-210.
    28. Maji, A.K. (2003). Citriculture Management Information System (CMIS) in Geographical Information System. Advances in Citriculture.(Eds. Shyam Singh, V.J. Sivankar, A.K. Srivastava and I.P. Singh), Jagmandar Book Agency, New Delhi.
    29. Maji, A.K. (2003). Citriculture Management Information System (CMIS) in Geographical Information System. Advances in Citriculture.(Eds. Shyam Singh, V.J. Sivankar, A.K. Srivastava and I.P. Singh), Jagmandar Book Agency, New Delhi.
    30. Maji, A.K. and Obi Reddy, G.P. (2003). Geoinformatics for Natural Resources and Environmental Management at Watershed level for Sustainable Development. Contemporary issues in Natural Resources Management, Mittal Publications, New Delhi.
    31. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2003). Analysis of Landforms, soil and Land use/land cover Relationship in Metamorphic Landscape using Remote sensing and GIS. Resource Conservation and Food Security, Vol.II, (Ed. Tapeshper Singh), Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p.555- 564.
    32. Obi Reddy, G.P., Maji, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Srinivas, C.V. and Velayutham, M. (2001). Integrated Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for Delineation of Groundwater Potential zones and Identification of sites for Artificial recharge - A case study, Spatial Information Technology: Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (Ed. I.V. Muralikrishna) BS Publications, Vol (I), pp.649-658.
    33. Srinivas, C.V., Vittal Murthy, K.P.R., Krishna Murthy, Y.V.N., Krishna, N.D.R. and Obi Reddy, G.P. (2001). Land surface climatic parameters over Maharashtra derived from NOAA AVHRR, Spatial Information Technology: Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (Ed. I.V. Muralikrishna) BS Publications, Vol (II), pp.306-311.
    34. Srinivas, C.V., Vittal Murthy, K.P.R., Krishna Murthy, Y.V.N., Maji, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R. and Obi Reddy, G.P. (2001). Evaluation of growing period over Maharashtra in GIS and its validation using NDVI derived from NOAA AVHRR, Spatial Information Technology: Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (Ed. I.V. Muralikrishna) BS Publications, Vol (II), pp.460-466.
    35. Sidhu, G.S., Maji, A.K., Kandpal, B.K., Pande, S. and Velayutham, M. (2000). Analysis of constraints and potential of the soils of the Indo-Gangetic plains of Punjab. In GIS Application in Cropping System Analysis - Case Studied in Asia. eds. Pande, S., Maji, A.K., Johansen, C. and Bantilan F.T. Jr., ICRISAT Publication, Pattancheru, A.P., India.
    36. Maji, A.K., Pandey, S., Velayutham, M. and Ahmed, M.I. (2000). Changes in wheat productivity in the Indo-Gangetic plains of India. In GIS Application in Cropping System Analysis - Case Studied in Asia. (Eds. Pande, S., Maji, A.K., Johansen, C. and Bantilan F.T. Jr.). ICRISAT Publication, Pattancheru, A.P., India.
    37. Bantilan, F.T. Jr., Ahmed, I. and Maji, A.K. (2000). Spatial and attribute database in GIS and their processing. In GIS Application in Cropping System Analysis - Case Studied in Asia. eds. Pande, S., Maji, A.K., Johansen, C. and Bantilan F.T. Jr., ICRISAT Publication, Pattancheru, A.P., India.
    38. Bantilan, F.T. Jr., Ahmed, M.I. and Maji, A.K. (2000). Spatial and attribute database in GIS and their processing. In GIS Application in Cropping System Analysis - Case Studied in Asia. (Eds. Pande, S., Maji, A.K., Johansen, C. and Bantilan F.T. Jr.) ICRISAT Publication, Pattancheru, A.P., India.
    39. Bantilan, F.T. Jr., Maji, A.K. and Ahmed, M.I. (2000). Fundamental aspects of GIS. In GIS Application in Cropping System Analysis - Case Studied in Asia. (Eds. Pande, S., Maji, A.K., Johansen, C. and Bantilan F.T. Jr.). ICRISAT Publication, Pattancheru, A.P., India.
    40. Bantilan, F.T. Jr., Maji, A.K. and Ahmed, M.I. (2000). Fundamental aspects of GIS. In GIS Application in Cropping System Analysis - Case Studied in Asia. eds. Pande, S., Maji, A.K., Johansen, C. and Bantilan F.T. Jr., ICRISAT Publication, Pattancheru, A.P., India.
    41. Maji, A.K. (1999). Software in use at NBSS&LUP. In “GIS Analysis of Cropping Systems”, Proceedings of an International Workshop on Harmonization of Databases for GIS Analysis of Cropping Systems in the Asia Region, 18-19 Aug. 1997, ICRISAT-Patancheru, India.
    42. Maji, A.K. and M. Velayutham (1999). Real life problems in developing a land-use plan using computerized systems. In “GIS Analysis of Cropping Systems”, Proceedings of an International Workshop on Harmonization of Databases for GIS Analysis of Cropping Systems in the Asia Region, 18-19 Aug. 1997, ICRISAT-Patancheru, India.
    43. Maji, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Subramanian, R. and Sehgal, J. (1996). Soil Information Dessimination using GIS for District Level Planning.Informatics for Sustainable Agricultural Development. NIC Publ., New Delhi.
    44. Sehgal, J., Challa, O., Thampi, C.J. Maji, A.K. and Nagabhushana, S.R. (1996). Red and Lateritic Soils of India In "Red and Lateritic Soils of the World" Vol: 2. Oxford IBH Publ, N. Delhi.


     

    Cartography Lab - RSA Division

    • Natural Resource Atlas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India March, 2005
    • Bioclimatic Analysis of India (1982) Bull. No. 7
    • Agro-climatic Environments and Moisture Regimes in NW-I Bull. No. 17
    • Agro-Ecological Zones of India (5th Approx) (1989) Bull No
    • The soils of Anantnag and part of Pulwama district (Janak) No. 26
    • India-growing period for crop planning (1993) Bull No. 39
    • Soil climatic data base for crop planning and development No
    • Agro-ecological sub-regions of India (1999) Bull No
    • The suitabilities of Vertisols and associated soil for improving system in Central India (1991) Bull. No. 30

    Soil Maps Published (1:250,000)

    Sr. No. State/UT No. of sheets
    1. Arunachal Pradesh 2
    2. Assam 2
    3. Bihar (including Jharkhand) 4
    4. Goa 2
    5. Gujarat 4
    6. Haryana 2
    7. Himachal Pradesh 2
    8. Jammu & Kashmir 4
    9. Karnataka 4
    10. Kerala 2
    11. Madhya Pradesh (incl. Chhattisgarh) 9
    12. Maharashtra 6
    13. Manipur 1
    14. Meghalaya 1
    15. Punjab 2
    16. Rajasthan 6
    17 Tamil Nadu 4
    .18. Tripura 2
    19. West Bengal 4
    20. Andhra Pradesh 6
    21. Sikkim 4
    22. Uttar Pradesh(including Uttrakhand) 6
    23. Nagaland 1
    24. Mizoram 1
    25. Orissa 4

    Soil erosion Maps of states (scale 1:1 m) Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tripura, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

    District soil resource atlas

    Nagpur (1994)
    Bhopal (1999)
    Guna (2000)
    Betul (2000)
    Dhar (2001)
    Ratlam (2002)
    Chhindwara (2003)
    Jagdalpur (2004)
    Bilaspur (2002)
    Jorhat (2004)
    Wardha (2005)

    Research Paper Published

    1. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C. (1990). Estimation of net irrigation requirement of wheat (Triticum aestivum) through water balance in West Bengal. Indian J. Agri. Sci. 60: 272-274.
    2. Challa, O., Mandal, D.K. and Roy Chowdhury, C. (1991). Estimated plant available water capacity (PAWC) in some swell shrink soils of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Indian J. Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies, 13: 112-114.
    3. Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Challa, V.S. (1991). Comparison of Penman and Hargreaves Eto under different climatic conditions in India. Geogr. Rev. of India 53: 26-28
    4. Bhattacharyya, T., Mandal C. and Deshmukh S.N. (1992). Soils and landuse pattern in part of Western Maharashtra. J. Indian Soc. of Soil Sci. 40: 13-42
    5. Mandal, C., and Kolte, K.T. (1994). Bio-climatic regions of Vidarbha: A review of water balance. Geographical Review of India, 56: 27-33.
    6. Mandal, C. and Kolte, K.T. (1995). Agro-ecological zones – A case study of Vidarbha. Geographical Review of India, 57: 336-344.
    7. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C. (1995). Agro-climatic classification of rice growing environments of eastern India. J. Indian Soc. of Soils Sci. 43: 418-427.
    8. Mandal, C. and Mandal, D.K. (1996). Qualitative assessment of soil erosion from soil survey data – A case study of Nagpur district – Geographical Note. Geographical Review of India, 58: 77-81.
    9. Mandal, C., Mandal D.K. and Srinivas, C.V. (1996). Defining climatic map of India following FAO growing period concept. Geogr.Rev. of India, 58: 243-250
    10. Mandal, C. and Mandal, D.K. (1997). Qualitative assessment of soil sustainability from soil survey data – a case study for Nagpur district. J. Indian Soc. of Soil Sci.,45: 325-329
    11. Mandal, C., Mandal, D.K. and Srinivas, C.V. (1996). Defining climatic map of India following FAO growing period concept. Geographical Review of India, 58: 77-81.
    12. Mandal, C. and Mandal, D.K. (1997). Use of length of growing period – Concept in Agro-ecological zones – Delineation and crop planning under Indian perspective. Geog. Rev. of India, 59: 320-329
    13. Mandal, C., Mandal, D.K. and Yadav, S.C. (1997). Land capability and land use of Nagpur district. Geogr Rev. of India, 59: 41-46
    14. Bhattacharyya, T, Sarkar, D, Gangopadhyay, S.K., Dubey, P.N., Baruah, U. Chamuah, G.S., Mukhopadhyay, S. , Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Saxena, R.K., Barthwal, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Mandal, C.,, Sehgal, J.L., Bhowmick, K.R., Sinha, L. Chakraborty, S., Nandi, Mazumdar, S., Pal, D.K., Krishna Kumar, A.K. and Sethurog, A.K. Soils of Tripura-I Characterisation and classification. Agropedology, 8: 55-60
    15. Bhattacharyya, T, Sarkar, D, Gangopadhyay, S.K., Dubey, P.N., Baruah, U. Chamuah, g.S., Mukhopadhyay, S. , Nayak, D.C., Maji, A.K., Saxena, R.K., Barthwal, A.K., Krishna, N.D.R., Mandal, C.,, Sehgal, J.L., Bhowmick, K.R., Sinha, L. Chakraborty, S., Nandi, Mazumdar, S., Pal, D.K., Krishna Kumar, A.K. and Sethurog, A.K. Soils of Tripura-II: Suitability for Rubber. Agropedology, 8: 55-60
    16. Sidhu, G.S., Kandpal, B.K. and Mandal, C. (1998). Evaluation of soils of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra state for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivation. Indian J. agric. Sc., 68: 607-610
    17. Mandal, C. and Mandal, D.K. (1999). Agro- demographic zones of high rainfall regions of Eastern India. Journal of Agrl. Situation in India 54:675-680
    18. Velayutham, M., Mandal, D.K. Mandal, C. (1999). Agro-ecological delineation for promoting sustainable agriculture. J. Soil Wat. Conser. India. 4:1-26
    19. Mandal, C., Mandal, D.K. and Srinivas, C. (2000). Agroclimatic classification of sorghum growing areas of India. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48:151-159
    20. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. Mandal, C. and Velayutham, M. (2000). Organic carbon stock in Indian soils and their geographical distribution. Current Science. 79(5):655-660
    21. Mandal, D.K., Khandare, N.C., Mandal, C. (2002). Delineation of Sorghum Suitable Areas of Nagpur District. Geographical Review of India, 64:174-182
    22. Mandal,D.K..,Khandare N.C.,Mandal, C and O. Challa (2002). Assessment of quantitative land evaluation methods and suitability mapping for cotton growing soils of Nagpur Distt. J.Indian Soc. Soil Sci 50(1):74-80
    23. Mandal, D K,Khandare,N C Mandal,C. and O. Challa (2003). Water use Efficiency of cotton as influenced by Agro-environment. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci 51(1): 17-22
    24. Mandal D.K,Khandare,N.C., Mandal,C. and O. Challa (2003). Water use Efficiency of Sorghum (sorghum bicolor) in catenary soils as influenced by varying rainfall. J. Indian Soc. Soil. Sci. 51(3):223-228
    25. Mandal, D.K., Khandare, N.C., Mandal, C. and Challa, O. (2004). Soil survey database and rainfed cotton performance in catenary soils in Central India. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 53(1):29-34.
    26. Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. , Challa, O. and Jagdish Prasad (2006). Development of Land Quality Index from Edaphological data- A case study in shrink-swell soils in Central India. Agropedology 16(2): 42-45.
    27. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran P., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C. and Wani, S.P. (2007). Changes in levels of carbon in soils over years of two important food production zones in India. Current Science 93(2):1854-1863.
    28. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran P., Ray, S.K.,Pal, D.K., Venugpalan, M.V., Mandal, C. Wani, S.P., Manna, M.C. and Ramesh V. (2007). Carbon sequestration in red and black soils I. Influence of morphological properties. Agropedology 17:1-15.
    29. Bhattacharyya, T. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Pal. D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C., Wani, S.P., Manna, M.C, and Ramesh, V. (2007). Carbon sequestration in red and black soils II. Influence of physical and chemical properties. Agropedology 17:16-25.
    30. Bhattacharyya, T. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Pal. D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C., Wani, S.P., Manna, M.C, and Ramesh, V. (2007). Carbon sequestration in red and black soils III. Identifying systems through carbon stock and bulk density of soils. Agropedology 17:26-34.
    31. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P. Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L., Mandal, C., Telpande, B. (2007). Available K reserve of two major crops growing regions (alluvial and shrink-swell soils) in India. Indian Journal of Fertilizers 3: 41-46, 49-52.
    32. Bhattacharyya, T. Ram Babu, Sarkar, D., Mandal, C. Dhyani, B.L. and Nagar, A.P. (2007). Soil loss and crop productivity model in humid subtropical India. Current Science 93(10):1397-1403.
    33. Mandal, C. Mandal, D.K. and Gharami, S.C. (2007). Rehabilitation of Tribals in the forest- A case study of Madhya Pradesh. Geo. Rev. of India 69(3):317-325
    34. Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Sujatha, M. (2008). Agro-environments for Waigaon Haldi of Vidarbha. Spice India 21(4): 18-20.

    International Journal

    1. Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Velayutham, M. (2001). Development of land quality index for sorghum in Indian semi-arid tropics (SAT). Agricultural Systems:70 335-350
    2. Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Venugopoalan (2005). Suitability of cotton cultivation in shrink swell soils in central India. Agricultural Systems: 84 55-75
    3. Bhattacharyya, T. Pal, D.K., Easter, M. Batjes, N.H., Milne, E., Gajbhiye, K.S., Chandran, P. Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Paustian, K. Williams, S.,Killian, K. Coleman, K. Faloon, P. and Powlson, D.S. (2007). Modelled soil organic carbon stocks an changes in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India from 1980 to 2030. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122: 84-94.
    4. Bhattacharyya, T. Pal, D.K., Easter, M. Willliams, S. Paustian,K. Milne, E., Chandran,P. Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Coleman, K., Faloon P, Powlson, D.S. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2007). Evaluating the century C model using long term fertilizer trials in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122: 73-83.

    Research Bulletins

    1. NBSS&LUP (1990). The soils of Anantnag and part of Pulwana districts (Jammu & Kashmir_ for Land Use Planning, NBSS Publ.26, 62p.+7 maps.
    2. NBSS & LUP (1991). The suitabilities of vertisols and associated soils for improved cropping systems in India, Bulletin No. 30, NBSS & LUP and ICRISAT.
    3. Sehgal, J. Mandal, D.K. Mandal, C. and Vadivelu, S. (1992). Agro ecological regions of India 2nd ed., NBSS Publ. No.24, 130 p. + 1 coloured map.
    4. Sehgal, J., Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Yadav, S.S. (1993). India - Growing period for crop planning NBSS Publ. 39, 5 p. + 5 folded maps.
    5. Sehgal, J., Mandal, C., Singh, S.R., Chaturvedi, A., Vadivelu, S., Yadav, S.C., Pofali, R.M., Singh, A.M.P. (1994). Land Resource Atlas of Nagpur district, NBSS Publ. 22, 75 p. + App. 4 p.
    6. Velayutham, M., Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Sehgal, J. (1999). Agro-ecological subregions of India for planning and development, NBSS Publ. 35, 452p. + 1 coloured map.
    7. Mandal, C., Mandal, D.K., Srinivas, C.V., Sehgal, J. and Velayutham, M. (1999). Soil climatic database for crop planning in India, NBSS Publ. 53, 994p.
    8. Bhattaharyya, T. Chandran, P. Ray, S.K. Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, Durge, M.V., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.k. and Shama, R.P., Wani, S.P. , Rego, T.J. , Ramesh, V. Pathak, P., Manna, M.C. and Sahrawat, K.L. (2007). Physical & Chemical Properties of Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-Arid Tropics, India. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No. 35. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), 236 pp.
    9. Bhattacharyya, T., Velayutham, M., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. and Mandal, C. (2007). Total carbon stock in Indian soils, Final Project Report, NBSS & LUP (ICAR), India. 199 pp.

    Chapter Contributed to Books

    1. Mandal, C. and Mandal, D.K. (2001), Agro-Climatic Data–base for Geographical Research in Agriculture in Environment and Development Edited by Rabindranath Bhattacharyya published by Geographical Society of India, Kolkata, pp 138-170.

    Popular Articles

    1. Mandal, D.K. Mandal, C. (1994). Profile of Andaman and Nicobar Island's ecosystem. Lokmat Times, April, 27.
    2. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C. (1995). Conserving soils for posterity, The Hitavada, Sunday Despatch, Dec. 24.
    3. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C. (1996). The need for coastal management, Lokmat Times, May, 22.
    4. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C. (1997) Global warming and organic Carbon, Lokmat Times, Jan. 22.
    5. Mandal, C. and Mandal, D.K. (2000). "Conserving Nagpur soils for sustainability". Zero-mile – status of Nagpur Environment, Souvenir – 21st Indian Geography Congress
    6. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal C. (2006). Agri-diversification, today’s buzzword. Green Hope.
    7. Mandal, D.K. and Manal, C. (2007). SEZ the dragon on our food land. Green Hope 14-16.
    8. Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C., (2008) Towards Increasing Rice Production. Green Hope, march, 2008, pp. 32-35.
    9. Mandal, D.K., Goswami, S.N., Mandal, C. and Khandare, N.C. (2009). "Managing Methane Emission from Cattle Population in Maharashtra". Green Hope, 16-18.

    Other Reports

    1. Status of Farm Mechanization in India (2006). Study relating to formulating long term mechnisation strategy for agroclimatic zone/state. Status paper on agro-ecological zones, their soil resource and cropping. K.S. Gajbhiye ad C. Mandal.
    2. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P. Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Wani, S.P., Rego, T.J., Ramesh, V. an Manna, M.C. (2006). Description of newly added crop database and modified crop files: Indo-Gangetic plains, India case study. Special publication of GEFSOC Project “Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks an Change at National Scale”. NBSS & LUP, India. P. 196.
    3. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P. Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Wani, S.P., Rego, T.J., Ramesh, V. an Manna, M.C. (2006). Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-arid Tropics of India. Global theme on Agroecosystems, Report No. 28, International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheu, Andhra Pradesh
    4. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P. Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Wani, S.P., Rego, T.J., Ramesh, V. an Manna, M.C. (2006). Morphological properties of red and black soils of selected benchmark spots in semi arid tropics of India. Global theme on Agroecosystems, Report No. 28, International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh
    5. Challa, O. and Mandal C. (2006). Soil resource based land use of Jalna district, Maharashtra. NBSS Publ. 122; NBSS&LUP, Nagpur 1555.
    6. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L., Nimkar, A.M., Raja, P. Bhattacharyya, T. Telpande, B., Mandal, C., Gharami, S. Sahu, V.T., Mogare, S.M., Vinchurkar, V. and Pal, D.K. (2006). Soils of Gunegal Research Farm of CRIDA (Hyderabad), Rangareddy (Dist). Andhra Pradesh. Technical Report No. 948. Division of Soil Resource Studies, NBSS & LUP (ICAR), India p. 164.

    Publication of Maps

    Soil Maps

    1. Red and lateritic soils of India in 1993
    2. Soil moisture regimes of India in 1993
    3. Soil temperature of India in 1994
    4. Soil Map of India (1:1000,000) Printed in 11 sheets at sub group association, NBSS & LUP (2002)
    5. Soil Loss Maps of States (1:1 m): Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Tripura, Assam and West Bengal, NBSS & LUP Publication in collaboration with CSWRCTI, Dehradun.

    Thematic Maps Generated

    1. Sehgal, J. Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C. and Vadivelu, S. (1992). Agro ecological regions of India. NBSS & LUP, ICAR. Nagpur.
    2. Sehgal, J., Mandal, D.K. and Mandal, C. (1999). Agroecological subregions of India, NBSS&LUP.

    Publication of Atlases

    1. Tamgadge, D.B., Gajbhiye, K.S. Mandal, C., Velayutham, M. and Kaushal, G.S. (1999). Soil resource atlas of Bhopal district. Madhya Pradesh. NBSS Publ. 77. NBSS&LUP. Nagpur.103p.
    2. D.B. Tamgadge. K.S. Gajbhiye. C. Mandal.. M. Velayutham and G.S. Kaushal (2001) Soil Resource Atlas of Guna distsrict. NBSS Publ. No.80 pp.93.
    3. D.B .Tamgadge. K.S. Gajbhiye. C. Mandal. M. Velayutham and G.S. Kaushal (2001) Soil Resource Atlas of Betul distsrict. NBSS Publ. No.86 pp 96.
    4. D.B. Tamgadge. K.S. Gajbhiye. C. Mandal.. M. Velayutham and G.S. Kaushal (2001) Soil Resource Atlas of Dhar distsrict. NBSS Publ. No.90 pp.93
    5. D.B. Tamgadge, K.S. Gajbhiye, C. Mandal and G.S. Kaushal (2002). Soil resource Atlas of Ratlam district NBSS Publ. No. 93
    6. D.B. Tamgadge, K.S. Gajbhiye, C. Mandal and G.S. Kaushal (2002). Soil resource Atlas of Bilaspur district(Chhattisgarh) NBSS Publ. No. 95
    7. D.B. Tamgadge, K.S. Gajbhiye, C. Mandal and G.S. Kaushal (2002). Soil resource Atlas of Chhindwara district (MP) NBSS Publ. No. 100
    8. Vadivelu, S., Baruah, Utpal, Bhaskar, B.P. Mandal, C., G.S. Kaushal, Sarkar, Dipak, Walia, C.S. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). Soil resource Atlas of Jorhat district (Assam), NBSS Publ. No. 107 pp73
    9. D.B. Tamgadge, K.S. Gajbhiye, C. Mandal and G.S. Kaushal (2002). Soil resource Atlas of Jagdalpur district (Chhattisgarh), NBSS Publ. No. 104
    10. J.P. Sharma, K.S. Gajbhiye, C. Mandal, A.K. Sinha (2005) Soils Resource Atlas of Wardha district, Maharashtra NBSS Pub. 116, pp 106.
    11. Directorate of Seed Research Institute (ICAR), Seed Atlas of India (2008).
     
     
     
Social Media

This website belongs to NBSS & LUP, Nagpur. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, an autonomous organization under the
Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture,
Government of India

Visitors Count : free hit counters

Website Update On : 22-June-2017

SSL Certificate:

MENU