Soil Resource Studies (SRS)

    About the Division

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    The Bureau initially had established five research divisions in 1980 at the Headquarters, Nagpur namely Soil Correlation & Classification, Pedology, Remote Sensing & Aerial Photo Interpretation, Cartography and Land Use Planning. To avoid overlapping of the work and to bring staff of the relevant fields together as recommended by the Quinquennial Review Team (QRT) the five divisions were reorganised (1992) into three divisions, viz. Soil Resource Studies (SRS), Remote Sensing Applications (RSA) and Land Use Planning (LUP).

    Division of Soil Resource Studies has the responsibilities for the research work in Pedology and other related fields.

    Mandate

    The National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning has several items as mandate, out of which the Division of Soil Resource Studies shares some of them as shown below :

    • Applied and basic research in Pedology
    • Development of soil classification rationale
    • Co-ordinating the soil correlation and classification activity
    • Post-Graduate teaching and research
    • Conducting trainings
    • Consultancy
    List of Scientists
    Name Designation Discipline E-mail  
    Dr. P. Chandran Pr. Scientist and Head Soil Science pchandran1960@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. Jagdish Prasad Pr.Scientist Soil Science jagdishprasad57@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Dr. (Mrs) P.L.A. Sttyavati Sr. Scientist Soil Science satyavathi@nbsslup.ernet.in View Biodata
    Dr. Pramod Tiwari Scientist SWCE ptiwary70@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. K. Kartikeyan Scientist Soil Science karthik_ssac@rediffmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. R.P. Sharma Scientist Soil Science rpsharma64@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Sh. Vasu D. Scientist Soil Science d.plantdoctor@gmail.com View Biodata
    Shri Gopal Tiwari Scientist Soil Science gopalmpkv@gmail.com View Biodata
    Shri Abhishek Jangir Scientist Soil Science abhishekjangir@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. Ranjan Paul Scientist Soil Science ranjan.reliance@@gmail.com View Biodata
    Infrastructure

    The Division has a moderate set up of basic and modern infrastructure of equipments to do research related areas :

    Soil Micromorphology

    It is difficult to conceive of detailed studies of soil genesis being carried out without the aid of micro-morphology. A number of different soil forming processes are usually typical of any one soil type, and the soil type that develops is generally a reflection of the balance between these processes. Some of the processes may not be sufficiently advanced to be expressed macromorphologically. Micro-morphology represents the surest way of identifying all the processes involved.

    Micromorphology is the branch of soill science that is concerned with the description, interpretation and, to an increasing extent, the measurement of components, features and fabrics in soils at a micro- scopic level, i.e. beyond that which can readily be seen with the naked eye. It is fundamental to an understanding of the processes involved in soil formation whether they be produced by the normal forces of nature or artificially induced by the effect of man.

    Establishment of soil micromorphological unit for micromorphological analysis and characterisation of benchmark soils of India was sanctioned in December 1981 under Indo-Dutch Collaborative Project with the following objectives :

    • Establishment of micromorphological laboratory and on the job training of technical staff.
    • Training of two Indian scientists in Netherlands.
    • Preparation, analysis and characterisation of 80 benchmark soils, inclusive of reporting.
    • Training courses in soil micromorphology which is now continuing.
    • The various instruments available for the purpose with the Division are :
    • Laboratory for mounting and polishing of the samples.
    • Petrographic research microscopes, Olympus BH-2 and Leitz Ortholux-II.POL-BK with mounted cameras and discussion tube for thin section studies and photomicrography.
    • Scanning Electron Microscope (Philips SEM 515)

    Soil Mineralogy

    A thorough knowledge and appreciation of the minerals in soils is critical to our understanding and use of soils for the betterment of mankind while protecting our fragile environment. Scientists from many disciplines use this knowledge in fundamental and adaptive research on soil erosion, weathering, classification, fertility, physics, chemistry and biochemistry, as well as in engineering aspects of soils. A critical use is the application of this knowledge to waste-related environmental problem including toxic waste clean up and land fill sittings.

    Minerals make up about 50 per cent of the volume of most soils. They provide physical support for plants and create the water and air filled pores that makes plant growth possible. Mineral weathering releases plant nutrients that are retained by other minerals through adsorption; cation exchange and precipitation. Minerals are indications of the amount of weathering that has taken place and the presence or absence of particular minerals give clues as to how soil formed. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil minerals are important to consider in various aspects of land use planning. (image=Scanning Electron Microscope to study the surface features of various minerals present in soil environment)

    The instrument available for the purpose is :

    • X-ray diffraction unit (Philips X-Pert-ProXRD).
    • Scanning Electron Microscope (Philips SEM 515).

    Physical and Chemical Laboratory

    The Division has a uptodate set up for physical and chemical analyses pertaining to soils. Sophisticated instruments available are :

    • Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
    • Freeze drier (Lyolab-B) for freeze drying of samples, particularly finer fractions of soils.
    • Ultra pure water purification system on the principal of reverse osmosis
    • Pressure plate apparatus for measuring soil moisture content
    • Water purification system - Freeze dryer
    • Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectro-meter (ICP-AES) (Leeman)

    Recent developments in Argon plasma have made these attractive sources of excitation for emission spectrometry. These plasma is highly stable, produces high temperature sufficient to even atomise the refractive materials, and is coupled with direct readers or scanning monochromators which makes it an excellent tool for simultaneous or sequential multi-element determinations. Carbon and nitrogen (C/N) analyser is an excellent facility to analyse the total C and N in soils and sediments and caters to the need of carbon related research at the Division.

    GIS Unit

    The Division has developed a small GIS unit with the financial assistance of Department of Science and Technology with a modest configuration of a high end computer, digitiser and Map-INFO Software with A3-size colour printer. Recently Arc GIS 8.0x version has been acquired and made to use by financial help from GEF-UNEP project.

    Computerised Bibliographic Database

    The Division has developed a computerised, updated reference files for major soils of the world on the recent development in pedological research.

    Soil Correlation Activity

    Soil correlation has been an important mandate of the Division since its inception. It has been taken up in a big way since the last three years to correlate the major benchmark soil series of the country and enter it into the National Register for Soil Series.

    Other Infrastructural Facility

    The Division is equipped with 37 computers (including 3 laptops) of which 5 are linked with Local Area Network (LAN) with e-mail facility. The division is also hooked through Internet for faster communication.

    Achievement (Project completed with very brief note)

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    The Division of Soil Resource Studies is engaged in conducting research on pedology, pedogeomorphology, mineralogy and micromorphology of benchmark and associated soils for understanding their genesis and for their precise classification.

    Institute Projects

    • Pedogeomorphic study to infer the role of neotectonics and paleoclimate in the evolution and distribution of soils in the Purna Valley.

      The Mathematical Equation to Calculate Linear distance of cyclic horizons in Vertisols has been developed. It is an improvised, but useful, method to identify locations of microdepressions and microknolls required for better management of Vertisols.


      The morphological (both macro and micro), physical and chemical differences between the Vertisols of the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Purna Valley in Maharashtra suggest that a decrease in rainfall and increase in temperature can modify important properties of soils in adjoining districts within an ustic soil moisture regime. Pedogenic carbonate, subsoil sodicity, poor plasma separation and deepening of cracks through the slickenside horizons are interpreted as indicators of polygenesis in Vertisols of this region and also in others with similar climatic condition.

      • Sodicity in Vertisols of the Purna valley is attributed to depletion of calcium ions as calcium carbonate, resulting in an increase of both SAR and ESP with pedon depth. This chemical degradation, appear to be a basic process in addition to those already described as natural processes of soil degradation.
      • Due to huge amounts of smectite, Vertisols have severe use limitations even at ESP 5. Thus ESP 5 should be used as the lower limit for sodic subgroups of Vertisols, rather than ESP 15.
      • The formation of pedogenic CaCO3 is also a basic process for the development of sodicity, suggesting that all sodic soils are calcareous, but all calcareous soils may not be sodic. Therefore this fact needs to be recognised as a natural process of soil degradation.
    • Nutrient reserve and release behaviour in selected Benchmark soils.
      • In an alkaline environment K release from biotite and muscovite occurs through Na-K exchange reactions and dissolution of structural unit, respectively.
      • In presence of biotite that supplies most of soil K in alluvial (Alfisols, Inceptisols), black (Vertisols and their intergrades) and red (Alfisols) soils, muscovite is a useless K reserve. Relative abundance of biotite and muscovite will therefore explain the anomalous crop response to K fertilisers.
      • Crop response to K-fertilizers will depend on the biotite reserves in various soil-size fractions. A selective quantification of biotite mica in the common situation in soils containing mixtures of biotite and muscovite could be an effective tool to determine the status of stock of K in soils. This information could be used to dictate the K-fertilizer requirement in various soils in many parts of India and elsewhere and will also help in making projections for K-fertilizer production in the future.
      • Potassium adsorption in Vertisols is due to the presence of vermiculite and not due to smectite.
    • Micromorphological characterisation of selected Vertisols and associated soils in relation to their genesis.
      • Shrink-swell soils of sub-humid region have strong plasmic fabric, whereas soils of arid regions show weak plasma separation due to hydroxy-interlayering of smectite.
      • Micromorphological studies indicated that the sewage water irrigation increased the porosity of the soil, while the suspended organic matter formed a coating around the soil particles and along the walls of the pores.
      • Micromorphological study indicates Vertisols contain both pedogenic calcium carbonate (PC) and non-pedogenic calcium carbonate (NPC) irrespective of the ecosystems they belonged. The NPCs are part of the parent material of Vertisols. Dissolution of NPCs and recrystallization of dissolved Ca2+ ions are responsible for the formation of PCs. Vertisols of arid and semi-arid climates contain more amount of PC in their soil control section as compared to those for sub-humid climate. Formation of PC is the prime chemical reaction responsible for rise in pH, decrease in Ca/Mg ratio of exchange site with depth and development of subsoil sodicity.
    • Micromorphological characterisation of ferruginous soils.
      • Thin section studies of ferruginous soils of southern peninsular India indicate the argillans not due to the process of illuviation but as a product of biotite weathering in situ.
      • Enormous faunal activity to a greater depth was observed in highly weathered ferruginous soils leading to high porosity of the soil. Their activity influenced continuity of the macropores to a great extent.
      • Highly weathered ferruginous soils from Bangalore plateau, Karnataka showed dominance of microlaminated textural pedofeatures (ferriargillans), matrix of unsorted clay pedofeatures (matrans) and fragments of clay pedofeatures embeded in soil matrix (papules) upto 150 cm depth. Below 150 cm impure clay pedofeatures, limpid clay pedofeatures (argillans) and fragments of clay pedofeatures were embedded in the matrix. Presence of ferriargillans in the surface indicated removal of surface horizon through erosion.
    • Clay mineralogy of soils of soil resource mapping project.
      • Preferential downward movement of weathered products of biotite (di and trioctahedral expanding minerals) resulting in decreasing trend of clay mica in alluvial soils is a sure test of clay illuviation even when clay skins are absent.
      • Clay illuviation in sodic soils of the Indo-Gangetic plains has not always resulted clay skins or, where present, in pure void argillans. Instead "impure clay pedofeatures" is typical in these soils because of impairment of parallel orientation of clay platelets, a specific process different from those described so far for genesis of less oriented void argillans.
      • In the northwestern part of the IGP, non-sodic and moderately sodic soils occur on microhigh and highly sodic soils occur on microlow positions. This has been shown to be due to the role of neotectonics in the formation of these soils as evidenced by disrupted clay pedofeatures.
      • Formation of Vertisols reflect a positive entropy change because weathering of primary minerals contributes very little towards the formation of smectites. It has been shown that the huge amount of smectites were formed in an earlier humid climate and preserved in the non-leaching environment of arid and semi-arid climates.
    • Evaluation of different methods for determining the soil moisture retention in the swell-shrink and associated soils of Nagpur district, Maharashtra.
      • Sieved samples can be used for moisture characteristic studies of shrink-swell soils instead of core samples without sacrificing the quality of results.
      • The retention of moisture at all tensions (33 to 1500 kPa) and also AWC increase with depth in Vertisols of Nagpur, Amravati and Akola districts of Maharashtra. These moisture characteristics are controlled by exchangeable magnesium and sodium on soil colloids.
    • Moisture retention and release behaviour in shrink-swell soils as affected by content and nature of clay and exchangeable cations.
      • Unlike nonexpansive soils with stable pores, the retention of water at low suctions in swell-shrink soils is not influenced by the structure of the soil sample.
    • Genesis and transformation of clay minerals: their significance in pedology, paleopedology and edaphology.
      • The formation of closely associated red and black soils of semi-arid and humid regions can only be explained through a progressive landscape reduction process from the studies of genesis and transformation of smectite and kaolin.
      • The first weathering product of basalt is smectite (nearer to montmorillonite of montmorillonite-nontronite series) which constitutes dominant mineral of Vertisols formed due to its mechanical deposition in an earlier humid climate.
      • Bases of zeolites prevented the complete transformation of smectite to kaolinite and preserved the black soils in tropical h umid climate of western India.
      • The formation and persistence of ferruginous Alfisols on the Western Ghats for millions of years provide an unique example that in an open system such as soil, the existence of a steady state appears to be a more meaningful concept than equilibrium in a rigorous thermodynamic sense. The knowledge gained on the role of zeolites in the persistence of Alfisols not only provides a deductive check on the inductive reasoning on the formation of soil in humid tropical climate but also indicates the role of these minerals in preventing loss of soil productivity even in an intense leaching environment.
      • It is apprehended that the ferruginous soils of the Western Ghats may be transformed with time into a typical poor-base-skeletal soils and shall fail to sustain the spectacular diverse flora and fauna of the Western Ghats. To preserve these invaluable natural endowment, mining of zeolites of the semi-arid part of the Ghats and their addition appears to be a very viable proposition to sustain the biodiversity of the Western Ghats.
      • Gibbsite in acidic Ultisols is the remnant of earlier weathering products of alumino-silicate minerals formed in a neutral to alkaline pedo-chemical environment. The mere presence of gibbsite, therefore, does not indicate their advanced stage of weathering.
      • In order to highlight the inherent relationship between vertic properties and the swelling minerals, the mineralogy class for shrink-swell soils in U.S. Soil Taxonomy should be only smectitic.
      • Despite the fact that shrink-swell properties of soils can only be a function of swelling mineral (smectite) content, there is a provision for truly kaolinitic mineralogy class in Soil Taxonomy (1994) which stands for revision.
      • The importance of phyllosilicates has been immensely appreciated while making an attempt to find out the minimum threshold value of smectite for the shrink-swell phenomenon of the black soils. Cutting across various representative soil samples of the country, the study shows that a minimum of 20% expansible mineral like smectite could cause shrinkage and swelling of soils which can be recognised in the field.
      • Despite the fact that layer silicates at a less advanced stage of weathering may lose their interpretative value, the formation of di- and trioctahedral smectite in ferruginous soils of central and southern India can be regarded as potential indicators of paleoclimatic change.
      • Micromorphological studies of lithomarge clays overlying a complex zone of micaceous sandstones and basalts in Bramhapuri, Maharashtra showed characteristic association of kaolinites and pedogenic carbonates indicating the influence of paleo-climate and environmental factors in their formation.
      • Ferruginous soils dominated either by dioctahedral smectite or kaolin, are relict paleosols and have been affected by the later climatic change as evidenced by the formation of trioctahedral smectite from biotite and thus qualify to be polygenetic soils. This mineral make-up is common in major soils (alluvial, black and ferruginous soils) of the country suggesting polygenesis seems to be a rule rather than exception in soils of India.
      • The persistence of Mollisols in the humid tropical environment has been possible due to the continuous supply of bases from zeolites of amygdoloidal basalt.
    • Total carbon stock in Indian Soils.
      • Estimation of SOC stock on the basis of soil orders and bioclimatic zones indicates the majority of the soils area (>50%) are deficient (<1%) in SOC content. The soils of arid and semi-arid climates are the most deficient in organic carbon but rich in inorganic carbon (CaCO3), indicating the natural degradation process caused by the adversity of arid climates. Proper rehabilitation of these soils can restore the productivity and also help in building up and sequestration of organic carbon.
      • To sustain the quality and productivity of soils, the knowledge of OC in terms of its amount and quality in soils is essential. This has more relevance soils of the tropical and the subtropical parts of the globe including the Indian sub-continent. SOC stock appears to be a single parameter that can help effectively in prioritizing the area for restoring soil health.
      • To mitigate the effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage by soils which acts both as a source and sink for this gas is an important tool and can also help to prioritize areas for carbon sequestration.
    • Assessment of soil loss by erosion in Tripura state (on 1:1:250,000 scale from SRM database) (NBSSLUP & CSWCR & TI).
      • In Tripura, soil erosion is about 15.17 mt every year which fall in the degraded uplands and some forest areas used for jhumming.
      • Terraces may be constructed on slopes ranging from 6 to 33 per cent.
    • Standardisation of methods and defining internal soil standards for C/N analyzer.
      • Defined the standards to adopt 9 methods.
      • Developed several internal standards with our own soil samples-defined them and stored for posterity.
      • Developed separate methods for calcareous soils and non-calcareous soils.
      • Set a new lower value <0.01% for our soils as a lowest detection limit.
    • Detailed soil resource survey of Gunegal Research farm of CRIDA, Hydrabad.
      • The ferruginous soils under semi-arid climate have the capacity to sequester >2% of SOC under forest system.
      • Horticultural system is a better option to raise the SOC to about 1% sufficiency level, if forestry is not feasible in this form.
    • Determination of layer charge of 2:1 layer silicate minerals in soils of India.
      • Hydroxy-interlayering in the interlayers of smectites of Peninsular India can be effectively removed by a method involving 0.25 N EDTA solution (pH 7.0).
      • Removal of hydroxy-interlayering from soil clay smectites enables the determination of their actual layer charge by alkylammonium method.
      • The layer charge of Vertisols of Peninsular India is in general, low, but increases with increasing amounts of the beidellite/nontronite species and the content of vermiculite.
      • The layer charge of shrink-swell soils indicate deficiency/sufficiency of potassium for crop nutrition and its management.
    • Ascertaining the pedogenetic processes for the clay enriched Bss horizons of Vertisols
      • Clay illuviation in calcareous Vertisols appears to be a more important pedogenetic process than argilliturbation towards proisotropic pedoturbation.
      • Pedoturbation appears to be a very slow process or even not a required process in a Vertisol and a time of a century is not adequate for the formation of slickensides. The study also suggests a strong possibility of the formation of Vertisols with time from Alfisols with vertic character in subhumid and semi-arid climatic conditions of central India.
      • Substantial illuviation of clay particles in calcareous Vertisols is possible when the illuviation of clay and the formation of CaCO3 are two concurrent and active pedogenic processes in dry climates. They are contemporary events and provide an example of pedogenic threshold during the late Holocene.
    • Study of the drainage morphology for development of water resources of the Waghari river catchment in Yavatmal district, Maharashtra
      • Based on crop combinations, the Yavatmal district in Maharashtra is divided into five crop zones viz. i) Cotton + Maize + Gram + Wheat in Digras, Yavatmal tehsils, (ii) Cotton + Jowar + Redgram + Gram in Kalamb, Darhwa, Mahagaon, (iii) Cotton + Bajra + Jowar + Maize + Redgram in Ner, Arni, Kelapar, (iv) Cotton + Redgram + Gram + Sesamum in Babulgaon, Raelaegaon, Maraegaon, Jharijamani and (v) Cotton + rice + Wheat + Jowar + Maize + Redgram in Pusad, Umerkhed and Wani tehsils.
    • Reconnaissance soil survey, mapping and classification of soils of Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh
      • Jabalpur district with a TGA of 519700 ha is endowed with Vindhyan and Satpura hills, Mahakaushal group of rocks, plateau, river terraces and flood plain. There are 23 physiographic units. Total 42 soil series were identified and mapped in 21 soil series association. The soils of district belong to Inceptisols, Entisols, Vertisols and Alfisols. Majority of soils are shrink-swell in nature showing various parental legacy.
    • Reconnaissance soil survey in Yavatmal district, Maharashtra
      • The southern part of Yavatmal is a plateau with very steep sides with ridges or into flat-topped or pointed hills running towards east and west belongs to the Balaghat and the southern hills of Berar. The Payanghat belongs to the valley of Berar is in the north of Yavatmal and Darwha talukas where as Wardha valley continues across the north of Kelapur taluka and the northern and eastern sides of Wani taluka and with the Penganga River along the southern border of the District. Yavatmal district consists of the Archaean rocks covered by Puranic rocks and in turn by the Gondwana system.

      The occurrence of dominant soil subgroups with respect to landforms is given below

      • Middle plateaus (223 profiles studied, 24.7%) :- dominant soil subgroups are Lithic Ustorthents (102, 11.3%) > Lithic Haplustepts (34, 3.8%).
      • Lower plateaus (193, 21.4%) :- Lithic Ustorthents (81, 8.97%) > Typic Haplustepts (29, 3.2%) > Typic Haplusterts (25, 2.8%)
      • Hills & ridges (153, 16.94%) :- Lithic Ustorthents (117, 12.95%) > Typic Ustorthents (23, 2.54%)
      • Upper pediplains (148, 16.38%) :- Lithic Ustorthents (117, 12.95%) > Typic Haplustepts (29, 3.2%) > Typic Haplusterts (21, 2.3%)
      • Upper plateaus (44, 4.9%) :- Lithic Ustorthents (18, 2.0%) > Typic Haplustepts (9, 0.99%)
      • Lower pediplains (39, 4.31%) :- Typic Haplusterts (16, 1.8%) > Typic Haplustepts (8, 0.88%).

    Externally funded projects (National)

    DST Sponsored Project :

    • Soil landscape model for suitable cropping pattern in Tripura (DST Project)
      • The commendable database generated in terms of Natural Resources of Tripura including soils, soil landscape model relation and soil landscape crop model for individual district as well as 19 study areas may help to develop the perspective planning for Tripura state in terms of agricultural crops, horticultural crops and plantation crops. This could be the source book for the future development programme.
    • Developing a model on the formation and resilience of naturally degraded black soils of the peninsular India as a decision support system for better land use planning.
      • Extensive studies have shown that formation of pedogenic CaCO3, exchangeable Ca/Mg ratio, ESP and saturated HC are the yield limiting factors. It has been demonstrated that evaluation of Vertisols for deep-rooted crops on the basis of HC alone may help in planning and management of soils.
      • Vertisols in Hooghly district of West Bengal were not formed in the alluvium of the Ganges, but actually from the alluvium carried by rivers flowing from the west (vicinity of the Rajmahal Trap basalts) towards the east, presently the direction of these rivers have been changed by tectonic activity.

    NATP Project

    • Identifying systems for carbon sequestration and increased productivity in semi-arid tropical environment (NATP)
      • The study developed the techniques to find out threshold limits of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density (BD) in identifying systems for better carbon sequestration and increased productivity.
      • To study helped to identify 22 systems. The data-sets generated enormously help the soil modelers engaged in research on SOC enhancement and increased soil productivity in SAT.
      • The data-sets of each BM location could also used for monitoring soil health.
    • Reflectance libraries for development of soil sensor for periodic assessment of state of sol resources (NATP/MM-III/2)
      • Reflectances were determined for standard clay minerals as well as soil clay minerals to identify the mineral type in the soils.

    Externally funded projects (Foreign)

    GEF-UNEP Funded Project

    • Assessment of soil organic carbon stock and its change at National Scale (GEFSOC)
      • Intensification of cropping systems towards triple-cropping will likely to reduce SOC stocks.
      • The GEFSOC Modelling System suggest that in the lower IGP, SOC stocks under rice-wheat or rice-potato cropping systems stabilized or were slightly decreasing or increasing during 2000. In contrast in the upper IGP, the system suggests that crop rotations helped increasing SOC in 2000.
      • The GEFSOC system is applicable to a wide range of soil types, climates and land uses, having been developed using data sets from 4 contrasting eco-regions.
      • The system simultaneously provides estimates of SOC using the default Tier 1 approach, within the same software package. Further, if country-specific stock change and emission factors are available, these can be entered into the database to construct a Tier 2 inventory. Hence countries can readily identify which land use activities and/or geographic areas within their country are potentially of most important as a C source or sink.

    Consultancy Projects

    • Soil resource mapping of Tripura state for perspective planning (1993-1999).
      • Soil resource inventory of Tripura state helped assessing suitability for expansion of rubber cultivation.
      • NBSS&LUP, Nagpur with the assistance of Agriculture and Horticulture department of Tripura estimated nearly 1 lakh ha area which could be moderately suitable for rubber; these area will, however, compete for other horticultural and plantation crops.
    • Resource soil survey of Rubber growing areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu
      • The mineralogical properties of sand, silt and clay fractions of major soil series identified in the project were determined to help in assessing the mineralogy class of these soil series as well as fertility mapping of the soils.
      • A total of 11,800 soil samples including the 1` km grid and master profiles, were analysed for the micronutrients Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn for the purpose of fertility mapping.
    Ongoing Projects

    Institutional Projects

    • Genesis and classification of Benchmark ferruginous soils of India
    • Correlation of Soil Series of India
    • Pedogenic thresholds in benchmark soils under rice-wheat cropping system in a climosequnce of the Indo-gangetic alluvial plains (Inst)
    • Detailed soil resource survey of Hayatnagar farm of CRIDA, Hyderabad (PS)
    • Development of protocols for digestion, standards and methods to determine elements in soil and sediments using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
    • Development of a soil water balance model for shrink-swell soils of central India
    • Characterization and evaluation of carbon (SOC) and sulphur status in soybean growing areas of Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh to suggest an alternate cropping pattern.

    Collaborative Projects

    DST Sponsored Projects :

    • Interfluve stratigraphy, sedimentology and geochemistry of the central and southern Ganga Plains (DST-ESS Project)
    • Predicting soil carbon changes under different cropping systems in soils of selected Benchmark spots in different bioclimatic systems in India (DST Sponsored Project)

    NAIP Projects

    • Assessment of Quality and Resilience of soils in Diverse agro-ecosystems NAIP (Component-4)
    • Georeferenced soil information system for land use planning and monitoring soil and land quality for agriculture NAIP (Component-4)

    ICAR Network Project

    • Changes in Soil Carbon Reserve as Influenced by Different Ecosystems and Land Use in India (ICAR Network Project on Climate Change)
    Capacity Building

    Post Graduate teaching and education

    The Division is offering the following two courses under land resource management.

    • Advanced soil genesis
    • Advanced soil mineralogy

    The Division envisages to offer the following courses.

    • Genesis, morphology and classification of soils (jointly with PKV, Akola)
    • Analytical methods with basic principles (jointly with PKV, Akola)

    Training

    • Summer/Winter Institute for SAU and ICAR professionals

      • The Division took part in taking theoretical and practical classes in all summer/winter school and all training programmes of the Institute.
      • The Division conducted training programme on Soil Micromorphology for the teachers of SAU and Scientists of ICAR and from different institutions.
      • Division takes active part in imparting regular training to Central and State Govt., NGOs and other Officials in "Soil Survey and Land Evaluation".
      • Students, research scholars, scientists take regular training on methods of soil analysis, mineralogical investigations by XRD and their interpretation.
      • Ten Scientists were trained for Century C and RothC modelling at NBSS&LUP during Jan, 2010.

    Contractual & Consultancy Services (Revenue generation)

    The following analysis have been done for several institutions and organisations including both Government and Private Sectors, NGOs, etc. Students have also been given concession for analysis.

    • Soil survey and mapping
    • Physical and chemical analyses including the use of sophisticated instruments like ICP, C/N analyser, etc.
    • Mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffractometer
    • Sub-microscopic analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope

    Consultancy Services

    In view of demand for professional advice, consultancy services are being offered in the following areas.

    • Guidance in acquisition and interpretation of soil physical, chemical and mineralogical data.
    • Guidance to professionals; NGO's and state agencies in soil correlation and classification.
    • Guidance in data interpretation for soil survey reports of different agencies.
    • Guidance in project planning, acquisition of data and their interpretation, for different agencies.
    Linkages
     

    The list of linkages may be given in bullet form

    National

    • CRIDA (ICAR), Hyderabad
    • Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur
    • Indian Institute of Soil Science (IISS), Bhopal
    • National Research Centre for Soybean (NRCS), Indore
    • Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola
    • TNAU, Tamil Nadu
    • UAS, Bangaluru, Karnataka
    • NRC for Weed Science, Jabalpur
    • CSWCR&TI (ICAR), Dehradun
    • State Agricultural Departments
    • CSSRI (ICAR), Karnal, Haryana
    • NRSA, Hyderabad
    • NBAIM, Mau Bhanjan, U.P.
    • DWM, Bhubaneswar
    • IIT, Kanpur

    International

    • The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences and Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Colorado
    • The Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, U.K.
    • IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria
    • ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Future Thrust Areas

    THRUST AREA OF SOIL RESEARCH ON BENCHMARK SOIL/SERIES IN THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    The soil system is much more complex than any other natural system, but it is the link between the abiotic world of rocks and the living world (biota).

    An understanding of the relevant soil processes and their interactions in a landscape are necessary to predict crop behaviour. The pedological research helps in acquiring this important knowledge. The interpretation of physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological environments and aspects of the whole soil profile are of immense value in developing crop specific models. However, the pedological research must be conducted on well established and well documented benchmark soils. But why so ?

    A benchmark soils is a reference point which is adequately characterised in terms of its properties and environmental conditions. It is significant in terms of its distribution so that performance data derived from experiments may be related to other soils with similar characteristics. The information about benchmark soils can be extended to many other soils closely related in classification and geography. It is, therefore, essential to identify benchmark soils and conduct research in weathering and soil formation, pedogenesis, soil mineralogy, soil micromorphology, and landscape-climate-soil relationship.

    VISION 2025 PEDOLOGICAL RESEARCH in SRS Division, NBSS&LUP

    Genesis and classification of benchmark (BM) soils

    • Characterisation, genesis and classification of soils with emphasis on benchmark soils and problem soils; dating of soils in specific cases.
    • Characteristics and mode of formation of diagnostic horizons and features particularly of semi-arid and arid climates.
    • State, status and movement of soil water under different climatic conditions and landscape situations.

    Genesis and transformation of minerals and their edaphological character in benchmark soils

    • Mineral weathering, clay minerals formation and transformation in soils developed on different geomorphic surfaces. Practical utility with reference to use behaviour of soils and soil erodibility.
    • Weathering of rocks and minerals, as a source of plant nutrients, and/or toxicity and through soluble products pollution of the water resources.
    • Layer charge of clay minerals to unfold the genesis of clay minerals and their nutrient supplying capacity.
    • Use of Roth C (developed in JK) and Century (developed in U.S.A.) to model the status of organic carbon in soil.

    Research on carbon and its modelling

    • Clay minerals and their transformation as a tool to predict climate change during the past.

    Post-Graduate studies

    • Post-Graduate studies for pursuing some of the areas of research.

    VISION 2025 OUTPUT OF PEDOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    • Information on established and delineated BM soils in the following areas for an efficient Transfer of Technology developed in a particular pedo-geomorphic unit.
      • Physical and chemical properties
      • Mineralogical characterization
      • Micromorphological characterization of soil features.
    • Reliable and easily measurable indices as to resolve enigmatic pedologic issues in Natric, Argillic, Kandic and Oxic diagnostic horizons.
    • Establishment of cause-effect relationship for adverse soil physical and chemical conditions to restore their productivity through compatible rehabilitation methods.
    • Implications of polygenesis nutrient management in ferruginous soils.
    • Content and nature of primary and secondary minerals with reference to K and P availability in alluvial and black soils.
    • Evaluation of soil properties leading to soil resilience in degraded soils.
    • Evaluation of pedological data base for identification and quantification of soil quality indicators and monitoring changes due to land use and soil degradation.
    • Regional and national level soil correlation jointly with NBSSLUP Regional Centres and State Soil Survey Organisations.
    • Research in Taxonomic Rationale.
    • Developing a Computerised Soil Data Base for Soil Correlation and Taxonomic Rationale.
    • Developing a model of understanding in terms of soil suitability for various cropping patterns.
    Major Publications (Research papers/Reports/Technical Bulletins)
     

    Research Papers

    1. Pal, D.K. & Bhargava, G.P. 1985. Clay illuviation in sodic -soils of the north-western parts of Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain. Clay Research 4:7-13.
    2. Pal, D.K. 1985. Potassium release from muscovite and biotite under alkaline conditions. Pedologie (Ghent) 35:133-146.
    3. Pal, D.K. & Goswami, S.C. 1985. Biotite weathering : a factor possibly influencing K-availability in some soils of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain. IPI (Switzerland) Research Topics No.12, p.54.
    4. Kalbande, A.R., Landey, R.J. & Bhattacharjee, J.C. 1986. Interdependence of compatible differentiae of Vertisols in Central Peninsular India. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 34:821-829.
    5. Kalbande, A.R. & Venugopal, K.R. 1986. Micromorphology in field of soil studies. Indian Farming 35:22-23.
    6. Venugopal, K.R. 1986. Weathering characteristics of minerals in a ferruginous soil : micromorphological study. Clay Research 5:88-92.
    7. Deshpande, S.B. 1987. Soil classification concepts and approaches. In Soil Survey and Land Use Planning for Watershed Management (Eds. S. Subramanian et al.). Publ. USAID, Delhi and TNAU, Coimbatore, p.60-66.
    8. Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1987. Characteristics and genesis of minerals in some benchmark Vertisols of India. Pedologie (Ghent) 37:259-275.
    9. Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1987. Genesis of clay minerals in a red and black complex soils of southern India. Clay Research 6:6-13.
    10. Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1987. Parent material, mineralogy and genesis of two benchmark soils of Kashmir valley. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 35:690-698.
    11. Pal, D.K. & Durge, S.L. 1987. Potassium release and fixation reactions in some Benchmark Vertisols of India in relation to their mineralogy. Pedologie (Ghent) 37:103-116.
    12. Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B. & Durge, S.L. 1987. Weathering of biotite in some alluvial soils of different agroclimatic zones. Clay Research 6:69-75.
    13. Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B. & Sehgal, J.L. 1987. Development of soils in Quaternary deposits of north India. Indian Journal of Earth Sciences 14:329-334.
    14. Sehgal, J.L., Hirekerur, L.R. & Deshpande, S.B. (Eds.) 1987. Pali Series - Characteristics, Classification and Interpretation for Land Use Planning, Soil Series Bull.3. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur.
    15. Sehgal, J.L., Vadivelu, S., Hirekerur, L.R. & Deshpande, S.B. 1987. Site-criteria for selecting experiment sites for a Vertisol management network. In Management for Vertisols under Semi-Arid Conditions, Eds. M.Lathan, and P. Ahn, IBSRAM Proc. No. p.71-82.
    16. Venugopal, K.R., Kalbande, A.R. & Deshpande, S.B. 1988. Micromorphology of a lowland rice soil. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 37:102-107.
    17. Venugopal, K.R., Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B. & Kalbande, A.R. 1988. Micromorphology and mineralogy of shrink - swell soil formed on biotite gneiss - an example from a paleosol of central India. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 37:108-112.
    18. Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B., Venugopal, K.R. & Kalbande, A.R. 1989. Formation of di- and trioctahedral smectite as evidence for paleoclimatic changes in southern and central Peninsular India. Geoderma, 45:175-184.
    19. Pal, D.K. & Durge, S.L. 1989. Release and adsorption of potassium in some Benchmark alluvial soils of India in relation to their mineralogy, Pedologie (Ghent) 39:235-248.
    20. Venugopal, K.R., Deshpande, S.B., Kalbande, A.R. & Sehgal, J.L. 1991. Textural pedofeatures (clay coatings) in a ferruginous soil from Bangalore Plateau. Clay Research 10:30-35.
    21. Chakravarti, D.N., Sehgal, J.L., Pal, D.K. & Dev, G. 1992. Clay mineralogy of Assam soils developed in alluvium. Agropedology 2:45-49.
    22. Kalbande, A.R., Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1992. b -fabric of some benchmark Vertisols of India in relation to their mineralogy. Journal of Soil Science 43:375-385.
    23. Nimkar, A.M., Deshpande, S.B. & Babrekar, P.G. 1992. Evaluation of salinity problem in swell-shrink soils in Purna valley, Maharashtra. Agropedology 2:59-65.
    24. Pal, D.K. & Durge, S.L. (1993). Potassium release from clay micas. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 41:67-69.
    25. Sehgal, J.L., Sohan Lal & Pofali, R.M. 1992. Sandy soils of India. Agropedology 2:1-15.
    26. Venugopal, K.R., Deshpande, S.B. & Kalbande, A.R. 1992. Micromorphology of lithomarge clay in Brahmapuri, Maharashtra. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 41:116-119.
    27. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1993. Genesis and transformation of minerals in the formation of red (Alfisols) and black (Inceptisols and Vertisols) soils on Deccan basalt in humid and semi-arid tropics of Western Ghats, India. Journal of Soil Science 41:150-171.
    28. Sohan Lal, Saxena, R.K. & Hirekerur, L.R. 1993. Soils of India - their problems and productivity. Journal of Soil Water Conservation of India 35:162-177.
    29. Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B. & Durge, S.L. 1994. Potassium release and adsorption reactions in two ferruginous (polygenetic) soils of southern India in relation to their mineralogy. Pedologie (Ghent) 43:403-415.
    30. Pal, D.K., Kalbande, A.R., Deshpande, S.B. & Sehgal, J.L. 1994. Evidence of clay illuviation in sodic soils of the Indo-Gangetic plain since the Holocene. Soil Science 158:465-473.
    31. Satyavathi, P.L.A., Sharma, J.P. & Srivastava, R. 1994. Contribution of soil organic matter, clay and silt to the cation exchange capacity of soil. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 42:14-17.
    32. Jagdish Prasad, Satyavathi, P.L.A., Rajeev Srivastava & Nair, K.M. 1995. Characterisation and classification of soils of Nasik district, Maharashtra. Agropedology 5:25-28.
    33. Balpande, S.S., Deshpande, S.B. & Pal, D.K. 1996. Factors and processes of soil degradation in Vertisols of the Purna valley, Maharashtra, India Land Degradation & Development 7:313-324.
    34. Pacharne, T.K., Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1996. Genesis and transformation of clay minerals in the formation of ferruginous Inceptisols and Vertisols in the Saptadhara watershed of Nagpur district, Maharashtra. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44:300-309.
    35. Pillai, M., Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1996. Distribution of clay minerals and their genesis in ferruginous and black soils occurring in close proximity on deccan basalt plateau of Nagpur district, Maharashtra. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44:500-507.
    36. Satyavathi, P.L.A. 1996. Suitable method to estimate lower limit of available water. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 66:676-678.
    37. Satyavathi, P.L.A. 1996. Soil water characteristic curve as influenced by soil porosity. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44:317-319.
    38. Balpande, S.S., Deshpande, S.B. & Pal, D.K. 1997. Plasmic fabric of Vertisols of the Purna valley of India in relation to their cracking. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 45:553-562.
    39. Balpande, S.S., Kadu, P.R., Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T. & Durge, S.L. 1997. Role of swelling mineral in fixing lower limit of exchangeable sodium percentage for sodic soils. Agropedology 7:54-61.
    40. Bhattacharyya, T., Baruah, U., Gangopadhyay, S. & Dileep Kumar, 1997. Characterisation of some Aquepts occurring in Assam Valley. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 45:791-796.
    41. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1997. On kaolinitic and mixed mineralogy classes of shrink-swell soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35:1245-1252.
    42. Pal, D.K. 1997. An improvised method to identify clay illuviation in soils of Indo-Gangetic plains. Clay Research 16:46-50.
    43. Paranjape, M.V., Pal, D.K. & Deshpande, S.B. 1997. Genesis of non-vertic deep black soils in a basaltic landform of Maharashtra. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 45:174-180.
    44. Satyavathi, P.L.A. 1997. Upper limit of available water in the field as related to laboratory determined parameters. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 67:510-512.
    45. Satyavathi, P.L.A. 1997. Dynamics of specific volume on variations in moisture content in swell-shrink soils. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture 15:127-135.
    46. Vadivelu, S. & Bandopadhyay, A.K. 1997. Characteristics, genesis and classification of soils of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 45:796-801.
    47. Bhattacharyya, T., Mukhopadhyay, S., Baruah, U. & Chamuah, G.S. 1998. Need of soil study to determine degradation and landscape stability. Current Science, 74:42-47.
    48. Chandran, P., S.K. Banerjee & S.K. Gupta 1998. Clay mineralogy of some high altitude acid soils of the Darjeeling Himalayas. Clay Research, 17:99-108.
    49. Dubey, P.N., S.P. Sangal, T.K. Sen & S. Chatterjee. 1998. Semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of fly ash – A Case Study. Clay Research, 17:90-98.
    50. Pal, D.K. & Bhattacharyya, T. 1998. Application of X-ray diffraction in identification of soil clay minerals for pedological studies. In National Workshop on X-ray Analysis, JNARDDC, Nagpur, pp.87-95.
    51. Satyavathi, P.L.A. 1998. Influence of structural condition of Vertisols on water retention characteristics. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 46:129-132.
    52. Srivastava, Pankaj, Parkash, B. & Pal, D.K. 1998. Clay minerals in soils as evidence of Holocene Climatic Change, Central Indo-Gangetic Plains, north-central India. Quaternary Research, 50:230-239.
    53. Bhattacharyya T., Pal D. K. & Velayutham M. 1999. A Mathematical equation to calculate lenear distance of cyclic horizons in dark clays. Soil Survey Horizons, 40:127-133.
    54. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Srivastava, P. 1999. Role of zeolites in persistence of high altitude ferruginous Alfisols of the humid tropical Western Ghats, India. Geoderma, 90:263-276.
    55. Dubey, P.N., Sangal, S.P., Sen, T.K., Chatterjee S., Mali, S.M. & Patil, V.P. 1999. Physical and chemical properties of Koradi Fly Ash of Maharashtra for its utilization in agriculture. Agropedology, 9:1-76.
    56. Naidu, L.G.K., Reddy, R.S., Sah, K.D., Bhaskar, B.P., Dutta, D., Niranjana, K.V., Dhanorkar, B.A., Srinivas, S., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Ray, S.K. & Raghumohan, N.G. 1999. Agro-ecological zoning of Andhra Pradesh for agroecology transfer. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 68:661-665.
    57. Pal, D.K., Srivastava, P. & Bhattacharyya, T. 1999. Clay minerals as evidence of paleoclimatic signature in soils. Gondwana Geological Magazine, Special Vol. 4:169-176.
    58. Ray, S.K., Jagdish Prasad & Tamgadge, D.B. 1999. A qualitative note on calcareous nodule formation. Indian Journal of Agricultural Chemistry 32:124-126.
    59. Srivastava, P. and Pal, D.K. 1999. Clay mineralogy of pedogenic calcrete : A complementary approach to infer the climatic change in soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Clay Research 17:43-56.
    60. Reddy, G.P. Obi., Shekinah, D. Ester, Maurya, U.K., Thayalan, S., Prasad, Jagdish, Ray, S.K. and Bhaskar, B.P. (1999). Landscape-soil relationship in part of Bazargaon plateau, Maharashtra Geographical Review. 61(3):280-291.
    61. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Srivastava, P. 2000. Formation of gibbsite in presence of 2:1 minerals : an example from Ultisols of northeast India. Clay Minerals 35:827-840.
    62. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Mandal, C. & Velayutham, M. 2000. Organic carbon stock in Indian soils and their geographical distribution. Current Science 79:655-660.
    63. Bhattacharyya, T., Srivastava, P. & Pal, D.K. 2000. In search of parental legacy for gibbsite in soils. Clay Research 19:69-76.
    64. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Krishnan, P. & Pal, D.K. 2000. Clay minerals in two ferruginous soils of southern India. Clay Research 19:77-85.
    65. Ray, S.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Challa, O., Jagdish Prasad, Singh, S.R., Anantwar, S.G., Gaikawad, M.S. & Padihar, S.K. 2000. Systematic soil survey to identify potential sodicity areas in part of Tawa Command, Madhya Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 48:346-351.
    66. Satyavathi, P.L.A. & Srinivas, C.V. 2000. Prediction of water properties in Vertisols and associated soils using silt, clay and organic carbon contents. Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development 15:55-63.
    67. Shirsath, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T. & Pal, D.K. 2000. Minimum threshold value of smectite for vertic properties. Australian Journal of Soil Research 38:189-201.
    68. Pal, D.K., Balpande, S.S. & Srivastava, P. 2001. Polygenetic Vertisols of the Purna Valley of Central India. Catena 43:241-249.
    69. Pal, D.K., Srivastava, P., Durge, S.L. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2001. Role of weathering of fine-grained micas in potassium management of Indian soils. Applied Clay Science 20:39-52.
    70. Gangopadhyay, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T. & Sarkar, D. 2001. Characteristics and classification of some rubber growing soils of Tripura. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49:164-170.
    71. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Velayutham, M., Chandran, P. & Mandal, C. 2001. Soil organic and inorganic carbon stocks in the management of black cotton soils of Maharashtra. Clay Research 20:21-29.
    72. Srivastava, P., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2001. Evidence of chemical degradation in tropical ferruginous soils of southern India. Clay Research 20:31-41.
    73. Bhuse, S.R., Vaidya, P.H., Bhattacharyya, T. & Pal, D.K. 2001. An improvised method to determine clay smectite in Vertisols. Clay Research 20:65-71.
    74. Roy, A., Chatterjee, K., Pal, D.K. & Srivastava, P. 2001. Geology, chemistry and mineralogy of some bole beds of eastern Deccan Volcanic Province. Geological Survey of India, Special Publication No. 64 pp.543-551.
    75. Datta, D., Ray, S.K., Reddy, R.S. & Budihal, S.L. 2001. Characterisation and classification of paleosols in part of south India. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49:726-734.
    76. Prasad, Jagdish, Nagaraju, M.S.S., Srivastava, Rajeev, Ray, S.K. & Chandran, P. 2001. Characteristics and classification of some orange growing soils in Nagpur district of Maharashtra. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49:735-739.
    77. Srivastava, P., Bhattacharyya, T. & Pal, D.K. 2002. Significance of the formation of calcium carbonate minerals in the pedogenesis and management of cracking clay soils (Vertisols) of India. Clays and Clay Minerals 50:111-126.
    78. Vaidya, P.H. & Pal, D.K. 2002. Microtopography as a factor in the degradation of Vertisols in central India. Land Degradation & Development 13:429-445.
    79. Bhuse, S.R., Ray, S.K. and Bhattacharyya, T. (2002). Formation of spatially associated red and black soils developed in zeolitic and non-zeolitic deccan basalt of western and southern India. Clay Research. 21(2): 75-90.
    80. Pal, D.K., Srivastava, P., Durge, S.L. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2003. Role of microtopography in the formation of sodic soils in the semi-arid part of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Catena 51:3-31.
    81. Pal, D.K., Srivastava, P. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2003. Clay illuviation in calcareous soils of the semi-arid part of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Geoderma 115:177-192.
    82. Kadu, P.R., Vaidya, P.H., Balpande, S.S., Satyavathi, P.L.A. & Pal, D.K., 2003. Use of hydraulic conductivity to evaluate the suitability of Vertisols for deep rooted crops in semi-arid parts of Central India. Soil Use & Management 19:208-216.
    83. Bhuse, S.R., Ray, S.K. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2002. Formation of spatially associated red and black soils developed in zeolitic and non-zeolitic Deccan basalt of western and southern India. Clay Research 21:75-90.
    84. Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Bhattacharyya, T., Durge, S.L. & Pal, D.K. 2003. Layer charge of two Benchmark Vertisol Clays by Alkylammonium method. Clay Research 22:13-28.
    85. Goswami, S.N., Dubey, P.N., Sen, T.K. & Challa, O. 2004. Land use dynamics in Mizoram. Agricultural Situation in India 60:531-538.
    86. Naitam, R. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2004. Quasi-equilibrium of organic carbon in shrink-swell soils of subhumid tropics in India under forest, horticulture and agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Soil Research 42:181-188.
    87. Satyavathi, P.L.A. & Suryanarayan Reddy, M. 2004. Soil-site suitability for six major crops in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 52:220-225.
    88. Satyavathi, P.L.A. & Suryanarayan Reddy, M. 2004. Distribution of DTPA extractable micronutrients in soils of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 14:32-37.
    89. Vaidya, P.H. & Pal, D.K. 2003. Mineralogy of Vertisols of the Pedhi Watershed of Maharashtra. Clay Research 22:43-58.
    90. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Dubey, P.N., Pal, D.K. & Krishnan, P. 2004. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of ferruginous soils of Goa. Clay Research 23:51-64.
    91. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Srivastava, P., Krishnan, P. and Pal, D.K. (2004). Lateritic soils of Kerala, India: their mineralogy, genesis and taxonomy. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 43:839-852.
    92. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya T., Srivastava, P., Krishnan, P. & Pal, D.K. 2005. Lateritic Soils of Kerala, India : their mineralogy, genesis and taxonomy. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43:839-852.
    93. Saharawat, K.L., Bhattacharyya, T., Wani, S.P., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K. & Padmaja, K.V. 2005. Long term lowland rice and arable cropping effect on carbon and nitrogen status of some semi-arid tropical soils. Current Science 89:2159-2163.
    94. Satyavathi, P.L.A. & Suryanarayan Reddy, M. 2005. Characteristics and classification of soils in southern Telangana zone of Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Research ANGRAU 33:18-26.
    95. Pal, D.K., Gupta, R.K., Durge, S.L., Sharma, R.P. & Khadka, Y.G. 2005. Role of fine-grained micas in potassium management of a long-term experiment on rice-rice-wheat system in soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains at Bhairahawa, Nepal. Clay Research 24:63-81.
    96. Pal, D.K. 2005. Modelling highly weathered ferruginous soils of tropical India. Agropedology 15:1-6.
    97. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P. & Ray, S.K. 2005. Land-use clay mineral type and organic carbon content in two Mollisols-Alfisols-Vertisols catenary sequences of tropical India. Clay Research, 24:105-122.
    98. Satyavathi, P.L.A., Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Bhattacharyya, T., Durge, S.L., Raja, P., Maurya, U.K. & Pal, D.K. 2005. Clay illuviation in calcareous Vertisols of Peninsular India. Clay Research, 24:145-157.
    99. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Satyavathi, P.L.A., Raja, P., Maurya, U.K. & Paranjape, M.V. 2006. Pedogenetic processes in a shrink-swell soil of central India. Agropedology 16:12-20.
    100. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Srivastava, P., Durge, S.L. & Bhuse, S.R. 2006. Significance of soil modifiers (Ca-zeolites and gypsum) in naturally degraded Vertisols of the Peninsular India in redefining the sodic soils. Geoderma 136:210-228.
    101. Raja, P., Satyavathi, P.L.A., Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T. and Pal, D.K. 2006. Minerals, plasmic fabrics and clay pedofeatures in Vertisols with and without soil modifier (zeolite). Clay Research 25:69-75.
    102. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Lal, S., Chandran, P. and Ray, S.K. 2006. Formation and persistence of Mollisols on zeolitic Deccan basalt of humid tropical India. Geoderma 146:609-620.
    103. Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Sahoo, A.K., Sarkar, D., Durge, S.L., Raja, P., Maurya, U.K. and Pal, D.K. (2006). On the formation of cracking clay soils in West Bengal. Clay Res. 25(2): 141-152.
    104. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C., Wani, S. P. Manna, M. C. and Ramesh, V. (2007a). Carbon sequestration in red and black soils I. Influence of morphological properties Agropedology 17, 1-15.
    105. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran,P., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C., Wani, S. P. Manna, M. C. and Ramesh, V. (2007b). Carbon sequestration in red and black soils II. Influence of physical and chemical properties Agropedology 17, 16 -25.
    106. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran,P., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C., Wani, S. P. Manna, M. C. and Ramesh, V. (2007c). Carbon sequestration in red and black soils III. Identifying systems through carbon stock and bulk density of soils Agropedology 17, 26- 34.
    107. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. Chandran, P , Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L., Mandal, C. Telpande, B. (2007) Available K reserve of two major crop growing regions (Alluvial and shrink-swell soils) in India Indian Journal of Fertilizers 3:41-46, 49-52.
    108. Bhattacharyya, T., Ram Babu, Sarkar, D., Mandal, C., Dhyani, B.L. and Nagar, A.P. (2007). Soil loss and crop productivity model in humid subtropical India. Current Science 93: 1397-1403.
    109. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Mandal, C and Wani, S.P. (2007) Changes in levels of carbon in soils over years of two important food production zones of India Current Science 93: 1854-1863
    110. Wani, S. P., Sahrawat, K. L., Sreedevi, T. K., Bhattacharyya, T. and Rao, Ch. Sreenivasa (2007) 'Carbon sequestration in the semi-arid tropics for improving livelihoods', International Journal of Environmental Studies, 64:6, 719 - 727
    111. S.K. Ray, T. Bhattacharyya, P. Chandran, A.K.Sahoo, D. Sarkar, S.L.Durge, P.Raja, U.K.Maurya and D.K. Pal (2006). On the formation of cracking clay soils in West Bengal. Clay Res. 25(2) : 141-152.
    112. Milne, E., Al-Adamat, R., Batjes, N.H., Bernoux, M., Bhattacharyya, T., Cerri, C.C., Cerri, C.E.P., Coleman, K., Easter, M., Falloon, P., Feller, C., Gicheru, P., Kamoni, P., Killian, K., Pal, D.K., Paustian, K., Powlson, D., Rawajfih, Z., Sessay, M., Williams, S., Wokabi, S. 2007. National and sub national assessments of soil organic carbon stocks and changes: the GEFSOC modelling system. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122:3-12.
    113. Easter, M., Paustian, K., Killian, K., Williams, S., Feng, T., Al Adamat, R., Batjes, N.H., Bernoux, M., Bhattacharyya, T., Cerri, C.C., Cerri, C.E.P., Coleman, K., Falloon, P., Feller, C., Gicheru, P., Kamoni, P., Milne, E., Pal, D.K., Powlson, D.S., Rawajfih, Z., Sessay, M., Wokabi, S., 2007. The GEFSOC soil carbon modelling system: a tool for conducting regional-scale soil carbon inventories and assessing the impacts of land use change on soil carbon. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122:13-25.
    114. Batjes, N.H., Al-Adamat, R., Bhattacharyya, T., Bernoux, M., Cerri, C.E.P., Gicheru, P., Kamoni, P., Milne, E., Pal, D.K., Rawajfih, Z., 2007. Preparation of consistent soil data sets for modelling purposes: secondary SOTER data for four case study areas. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122:26-34.
    115. Bhattacharyya, T., D.K. Pal, M. Easter, S. Williams, K. Paustian, E. Milne, P. Chandran, S.K. Ray, C. Mandal, K. Coleman, P. Faloon, D.S. Powlson and K.S. Gajbhiye (2007). Evaluating the Century C model using long-term fertilizer trials in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122 (1), 73-83.
    116. Bhattacharyya, T., D.K. Pal, M. Easter, N.H. Batjes, E. Milne, K.S. Gajbhiye, P. Chandran, S.K. Ray, C. Mandal, K. Paustian, S. Williams, K. Killian, K. Coleman, P. Faloon, and D.S. Powlson (2007). Modelled soil organic carbon stocks and changes in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India from 1980 to 2030. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122 (1), 84-94.
    117. Falloon, Pete, Jones, Chris D., Cerri, Carlos Eduardo, Al-Adamat, Rida, Kamoni, Peter, Bhattacharyya, Tapas, Easter, Mark, Paustian, Keith, Killian, Kendrick, Coleman, Kevin and Milne, Eleanor (2007). Climate change and its impact on soil and vegetation carbon storage in Kenya, Jordan, India and Brazil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122 (2007) 114–124.
    118. Milne, E., Paustian, K., Easter, M., Sessay, M., Al-Adamat, R., Batjes, N.H., Bernoux, M., Bhattacharyya, T., Cerri, C.C., Cerri, C.E.P., Coleman, K., Falloon, P., Feller, C., Gicheru, P., Kamoni, P., Killian, K., Pal, D.K., Powlson, D.S., Williams, S., Rawajfih, Z., 2007. An increased understanding of soil organic carbon stocks and changes in non-temperate areas: national and global implications. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 122:125-136.
    119. Satyavathi, P.L.A., Balpande, S.S. and Suryanarayan Reddy, M. 2007. Water retention characteristics of some shrink-swell soils as influenced by clay and exchangeable cations. Clay Research
    120. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Mandal, C. and Telpande, B. 2008. Soil carbon storage capacity as a tool to prioritise areas for carbon sequestration. Current Science 95:482-494.
    121. Pal, D.K. 2008. Soils and their Mineral Formation as Tools in Paleopedological and Geomorphological Studies. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 56:378-387.
    122. Gangopadhyay, S., Bhattacharyya, T. and Sarkar, Dipak (2008). Nature of acidity in some soils of south Tripura. Agropedology 18:12-20.
    123. Bhaskar, B.P., R.K. Saxena, S. Vadivelu, Utpal Baruah, D. Sarkar. P. Raja and P.S. Butte. 2009. Intricacy in classification of Pine growing soils in Shillong Plateau, Meghalaya, India. Soil Survey Horizons. Spring 2009.11-16.
    124. Pal, D. K., Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Satyavathi, P.L.A., Durge, S.L., Raja, P. and Maurya, U.K. 2009. Vertisols (cracking clay soils) in a climosequence of Peninsular India: Evidence for Holocene climate changes, Quaternary International 209:6-21.
    125. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Srivastava, P., Chandran, P. and Ray, S.K. 2009. Soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: their historical perspective and management. Current Science 96:1193-1202.
    126. Chandran P., Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L. Raja, P., Nimkar, A.M., Bhattacharyya, T. and Pal, D.K. 2009. Scope of horticultural land use system in enhancing carbon sequestration in ferruginous soils of the semi-arid tropics, Current Science 97:1039-1046.
    127. Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Chandran, C., Mandal C. and Wani, S.P. 2009. Soil Carbon Stocks in India- issues and priorities. ISSS special publication Journal of India Society of Soil Science 57:461-468.
    128. Pal, D.K., Dasog, G. S. and Bhattacharyya, T. 2009. Pedogenetic processes in cracking clay soils (Vertisols) in Tropical environments of India: a critique. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 57:422-432.
    129. Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., and Chandran, C. 2009. Mineralogy class of calcareous zeolitised Vertisols. Clay Research 28:73-82.
    130. Balbudhe, D.V. and Bhattacharyya, T. 2009. Mineralogy and genesis of some paddy-growing soils of Eastern Vidarbha, Maharashtra Clay Research 28:83-109.
    131. Srivastava, P., Rajak, M.K., Sinha, R., Pal, D.K. and Bhattacharyya, T. 2009. A high resolution micromorphological record of the Late Qnaternany paleosols from Ganga-Yamuna Interfluve : stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications, Quaternany International (in press).
    132. Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Mandal, C. and Wani, S.P. 2009. Soil carbon stocks in India – Issues and priorities. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, Special Publication for Platinum Jubilee Celebrations, 57:461-468.
    133. Bhaskar, B.P., Saxena, R.K., Vadivelu, S., Baruah, U., Sarkar, Dipak, Raja, P. and Butte. P.S. 2009. Intricacy in classification of pine growing soils in Shillong plateau, Meghalaya, India. Soil Survey Horizons 50(1):11-16.
    134. Bhaskar, B.P., Utpal Baruah, Vadivelu, S., Raja, P. and Sarkar, Dipak 2009. Pedogenesis in some subaqueous soils of Brahmaputra valley of Assam. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 57(3):237-244.
    135. Patil, N.G., Jagdish Prasad, Srivasrava Rajeev and Dhale, S.A. 2009. Estimation of water retention characteristics of shrink-swell soil using pedotransfer functions. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 57:272-279.
    136. Kashiwar, D.Y., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Srivastava Rajeev, Jagdish Prasad, Ramamurthy, V. and Barthwal, A.K. 2009. Characterization, evaluation and management of Salai watershed of Nagpur district, Maharashtra using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Agropedology 19:15-23.
    137. Challa, O. and Jagdish Prasad 2009. Occurrence of relatively acid Vertisols in Dadra Nagar & Haveli, India. Soil Survey Horizons 50:96-97.
    138. Jagdish Prasad, Ray, S.K., Gajbhiye, K.S. and Singh, S.R. (2009). Soils of Selsura research farm in Wardha district, Maharashtra and their suitability for crops. Agropedology, 19:75-83.
    139. Ghawade, A.R., Kadu, P.R. and Ray, S.K. (2009). Physical and chemical properties of soils affecting drainage in Upper Wardha command area. Agropedology, 19:92-98.
    140. Pal, D.K., Mandal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T. Mandal, C. and Sarkar, Dipak (2009). Revisiting the agro-ecological zones from crop evaluation. Indian Journal of Genetics, 69:315-318.
    141. Jagdish Prasad and Rajeev Srivastava 2010. Occurrence of red Vertisols in central India. Soil Survey Horizons 51:24-25.
    142. Hebbar, K.B., Venugopalan, M.V., Ray, S.K., Blaise, D. and Goklpure, P.P. (2010). Differential response of cultivated cotton species (Gossypium species) to salinity. Geobios 37(1): 3-8.
    143. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Williams, S., Telpande B.A., Deshmukh, A.S., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Easter, M., Paustian, K. (2010). Evaluating the Century using two long-term fertilizer trials representing humid and semi-arid site from India. Agricultural Ecosystem and Environment, 139:264-272.

    Book / Book Chapters

    1. Murthy, R.S., Hirekerur, L.R., Deshpande, S.B. & Venkata Rao, B.V. (Eds.) 1982. Benchmark Soils of India : Morphology, Characteristics and Classification for Resource Management, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur.
    2. Deshpande, S.B. 1988. Soil classification concepts and approach. In : Soil Survey and Land Use Planning for Watershed Management Ed. S. Subramanian, et. al. TNAU, Coimbatore, p.60-66.
    3. Pofali, R.M., Sehgal, J.L. & Swaminathan, M. 1991. Problems and potentials of pedogeomorphic surfaces in the basin of Purna. In Indian Geomorphology, Selected papers from the 2nd Conference of the Indian Institute of Geomorphology, New Delhi. Concept Publ. Delhi.
    4. Pofali, R.M., Vadivelu, S. & Swaminathan, M. 1991. The soils of deltas of India. In Quaternary deltas of India. Ed. R. Vaidyanathan, Geol. India Memo., 22:227-241.
    5. Goswami, N.N., Pal, D.K., Narayanasamy, G. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2000. Soil organic matter – Management issues. Special Publication, International Conference on Management of natural resources for sustainable agriculture towards 21st Century, Feb., New Delhi (in press).
    6. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Deshpande, S.B., Sarma, V.A.K. & Velayutham, M. 2000. Significance of minerals in soil environment of India, NBSS Review Series 1, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, 68p.
    7. Velayutham, M. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2000. Soil Resource Management. In "Natural Resource Management for Agricultural Production in India" (eds. Yadav, J.S.P. and Singh, G.B.). Special Publication for International Conference on Management of Natural Resources for sustainable agriculture towards 21st Century, Feb. 14-18, 2000, New Delhi, pp. 1-136.
    8. Pal, D.K. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2000. Nature and characteristics of the calcareous soils of India. In Proceedings of GAU-PRII National Symposium on Balanced Nutrition of groundnut and other field crops grown in calcareous soils of India. GAU, Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Sept. 19-22, 2000 pp.19-32.
    9. Ray, S.K., Reddy, R.S., Prasad, Jagdish, Gajbhiye, K.S. & Shyampura, R.L. 2001. Characterisation and classification of some calcareous black soils from three agro-ecoregions of India. In : Proceedings of National Symposia on “Balanced nutrition of groundnut and other field crops grown in calacareous soils of India”, September 19-22, 2000, Junagarh, Gujarat (N.S. Pasricha, S.K. Bansal and B.A. Golakiya, eds.), PRII, IPA and GAU, Junagarh, Gujarat, pp.43-50.
    10. Pal, D.K. & Sarma, V.A.K. 2002. Chemical composition of soils. In: Fundamentals of Soil Science, Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp.209-227.
    11. Velayutham, M., Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T. & Srivastava, P. 2002. Soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India – the historical perspective. In: Land Use – Historical Perspectives, Focus on Indo-Gangetic Plains (eds. Y.P. Abrol, S. Sangwan & M.K. Tiwari), Allied Publishers Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi pp. 61-70.
    12. Bhattacharyya, T. & Pal, D.K. 2003. Carbon sequestration in soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In: Addressing Resource Conservation Issues in Rice-Wheat Systems of South Asia – A Resource Book, Rice-Wheat Consortium for Indo-Gangetic Plains, CIMMYT-Centre, New Delhi, pp.68-71.
    13. Velayutham, M. & Pal, D.K. 2004. Classification, Indian In: Encyclopedia of Soil Science (ed. R. Lal), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. pp.1-3.
    14. Bhattacharyya, T. & Pal, D.K. 2006. Matir abaykshayrodhe prakitik zeoliter bhumika (Bengali), Bijyan Mela, May-June, pp.26.
    15. Pal, D.K., Nimkar, A.M., Ray, S.K., Bhattacharyya, T. and Chandran, P. (2006). Characterisation and quantification of micas and smectites in potassium management of shrink-swell soils in Deccan basalt area. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana on “Balanced Fertilization for sustained crop productivity,” November 22-25, 2006, Ludhiana, India. (D.K. Benbi, M.S. Brar and S.K. Bansal, eds.) Vol. I, International Potash research Institute, horgen, Switzerland, 2006.
    16. Pal, D.K., 2008. Studies on Indian Soils. In : Glimpses of Geoscience Research in India, The Indian Report to IUGS 2004-2008 (eds. Ashok K. Singhvi, A. Bhattacharyya and S. Guha), Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, pp.61-63.
    17. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P. & Ray, S.K. 2009. Tectonics-climate-linked natural soil degradation and its impact in rainfed agriculture : Indian experience. In : Rainfed : Agriculture Unlocking the Potential (eds. S.P. Wani, Johan Rockstroem and Theib Oweis), CABI International, Oxfordshire, U.K., pp.54-72.
    18. Bhattacharyya, T. and Chandran, P. 2009. Soils Taxonomy Rationale. In “Soil Survey Manual” (Eds.T. Bhattacharyya, Dipak Sarkar, D.K. Pal.) NBSS & LUP, Nagpur, India 217-233.
    19. Velayutham, M. and Bhattacharyya, T. 2009. Soils, In Handbook of Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi pp. 181-233.
    20. Chakrabarti, T., Juwarkar, A.A., Nayak, D.C. and Ray, S.K. 2009. Soil pollutions and environmental concern. In : Soil Survey Manual. T. Bhattacharyya, Dipak Sarkar and D.K. Pal (Eds.), NBSS&LUP Publications No. 146, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India, pp.362-382.
    21. Patil, N.G. and Jagdish Prasad 2009. Soil quality for engineering use (Eds. Ramesh Chandra and S.K. Singh). In: Fundamentals and Management of Soil Quality. Published by Westville Publishing House, New Delhi, p.358-380.
    22. Sohan Lal and Jagdish Prasad 2009. Soil Correlation. In : Soil Survey Manual (Eds. T. Bhattacharyya, Dipak Sarkar and D.K. Pal). NBSS&LUP Publications No. 146, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India, pp.234-242.
    23. Pal, D.K., Tarafdar, J.C. and Sahoo, A.K. 2009. Analysis of soils for soil survey and mapping. In Soil Survey Manual (Eds. T. Bhattacharyya, Dipak Sarkar and D.K. Pal), NBSS&LUP Publication No. 146, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India, pp.83-148.
    24. D.K. Pal, T. Bhattacharyya, P. Chandran and S. K. Ray (2009) Rainfed Agriculture: Unlocking the potential , (Eds. Suhas P. Wani, Johan rockstrom and Theib Oweis) Publications, CABI Head Office, Nosworthy way, Wallinford, Oxfordshire OX10 8De, UK
    25. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P. and Ray, S.K. (2009). Tectonics-Climate-linked Natural Soil Degradation and its Impact in Rainfed Agriculture: Indian Experience. In: Rainfed Agriculture: Unlocking the Potential (S.P. Wani, J. Rockstrom and T. Oweis, Eds.) CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 54-72.

    Technical Bulletins

    1. Shankaranarayana, H.S., Sarma, V.A.K., Deshpande, S.B. & Pandey S. (Eds.) 1984. Memorandum on Soil Correlation. NBSS&LUP, Bull. No.10, Nagpur.
    2. Sehgal, J.L., Venugopal, K.R. & Kalbande, A.R. 1992. Micromorphology of Soils of India. Research Bulletin, NBSS&LUP, Publ.34, Nagpur, 76pp.
    3. Dent, D.L. & Deshpande, S.B. (Eds.) 1993. Land evaluation for land use planning (Papers of Indo-UK Workshop). Res. Bull., NBSS&LUP Publ.42, Nagpur, 167pp.
    4. Sohan Lal, Deshpande, S.B. & Sehgal, J. (Eds) 1994. Soil Series of India. Tech. Bull., NBSS&LUP Publ.41, Nagpur, 684pp.
    5. Bhattacharyya, T. Sehgal, J. & Sarkar, D. 1996. Soils of Tripura for optimising land use : their kinds, distribution and suitability for major field crops and rubber. NBSS&LUP Publ. 65b (Soils of India Series 6). NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India 14pp.
    6. Bhattacharyya, T. Sehgal, J. & Sarkar, D. 1996. Soils of Tripura for optimising land use : their kinds, distribution and suitability for major field crops and rubber. NBSS&LUP Publ. 65a and c (Soils of India Series 6). NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India 154pp.
    7. Sarkar, D., Velayutham, M. & Bhattacharyya, T. 1999. Soils of Madhubani district for optimising land use (1:50,000 scale), NBSS Publ. 76, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India p.177.
    8. Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B., Velayutham, M., Srivastava, P. & Durge, S.L. 2000. Climate change and polygenesis in Vertisols of the Purna Valley (Maharashtra) and their management. NBSS Research Bulletin 83, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, 35p.
    9. Prasad, Jagdish, Ray, S.K. & Gajbhiye, K.S. 2004. Use sewage effluent with caution, Agricultural Extension Review, November-December, p. 25-26.
    10. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Mandal, C., Ray, S.K., Gupta, R.K. & Gajbhiye, K.S. 2004. Managing soil carbon stocks in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India, Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, pp.44.
    11. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. & Mandal, C. 2005. Bharatbarsher matir jaiba ebong ajaiba carbon, Mrittika Bigyan, Bigyan Mela (Bengali), November-December, p. 7-9
    12. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., (Mrs) Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K. Sharma, R.P. Wani, S.P., rego, T.J., Ramesh, V., and Manna, M.C.(2008). Characterization of Benchmark Spots of Selected Red and Black Soils in Semi-Arid Tropics, India for identifying systems foe Carbon Sequestration and Increased Productivity in Semi-Arid Tropical Environments Global Theme on Agro ecosystems Report No.42. Working Report of “Identifying Systems for Carbon Sequestration and Increased productivity in Semi-arid Tropical Environments (RNPS-25), National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT); and New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). 388pp.
    13. Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Bhattacharya, T., Pal, D.K. and Durge, S.L., 2008. “Determination of layer charge of 2:1 layer silicate minerals in soils of India.” Final Project Report, NBSS& LUP, Nagpur. p.111.
    14. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, D. Sehgal, J L., Velaytham, M., Gajbhiye, K.S. and Nagar, A. P., Nimkhedkar, S.S. 2009. Soil Taxonomic Database of India and the states (1:250, 000 scale), NBSSLUP Publ. 143, 266p.
    15. Bhattacharyya, T., Sarkar, Dipak and Pal, D.K. (Eds) 2009. Soil Survey Manual, NBSS & LUP Publication No. 146, India, 400p.
    16. Pal, D.K., Sohan Lal, Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Satyavathi, P.L.A., Raja, P., Maurya, U.K., Durge, S.L. and Kamble, G.K. (2010). Pedogenic thresholds in Benchmark soils under rice–wheat cropping system in a climosequence of the Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plains. Final Project Report, Division of Soil Resource Studies, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp.193.

    Map

    1. Bhattacharyya, T., Sehgal, J., Sarkar, D., Maji, A.K., Chamuah, G.S., Baruah, U., Mandal, C. & Bhoumick, K. 1996. Soils, Tripura (1:250,000 scale), NBSS &LUP Publ. No. 65a, b and c.
    2. Soils of Gunegal Research Farm of CRIDA (Hyderabad), Rangareddy District, Andhra Pradesh, NBSS Publ. No. 948, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur

    Technical Reports

    1. NBSS&LUP Staff (1999). Soils of KVK Farm (PKV) at Selsura, District Wardha, Maharashtra. Technical Report No. 544, pp.84, NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre, Nagpur.
    2. NBSS and LUP Staff (2000). Resource soil survey and mapping of rubber growing soils of Kerala and Tamil Nadu on 1:50,000 scale, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, 295p.+ clxxxv
    3. NBSS&LUP Staff (2000). Soils of Lalatora watershed, district Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh. Technical Report No. 549, pp.58, NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre, Nagpur.
    4. Staff, NBSS&LUP (2002). Soils of India. NBSS Pub. 94, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, India, pp. 130+11 sheets maps.
    5. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Vaidya, P.H. 2003. Soil landscape model for suitable cropping pattern in Tripura. Part I. Soil resources in Tripura – their extent, nature and characteristics. DST Project Report, NBSS&LUP (ICAR), Nagpur, 114p.
    6. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Vaidya, P.H. 2003. Soil landscape model for suitable cropping pattern in Tripura. Part II. Soil landscape model, districtwise soil landscape model, soil series – crop model, soil-landscape-crop simulation. DST Project Report, NBSS&LUP (ICAR), Nagpur, 139p.
    7. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K. & Bhuse, S.R. 2003. Developing a model on the formation and resilience of naturally degraded black soils of the Peninsular India as a decision support system for better land use planning. NRDMS, DST Project Report, NBSSLUP (ICAR), Nagpur, 144p.
    8. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. (Mrs) Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Manna, M.C., Ramesh, V. & Wani, S.P. 2004. Characterization of Benchmark Spots of Selected Red and Black Soils in Semi-Arid Tropics, India Working Report of “Identifying Systems for Carbon Sequestration and Increased productivity in Semi-arid Tropical Environments (RNPS-25) (NATP, ICAR), 370p.
    9. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. (Mrs) Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Manna, M.C., Ramesh, V. & Wani, S.P. 2004. Physical & Chemical Properties of Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-Arid Tropics, India. Working Report of “Identifying Systems for Carbon Sequestration and Increased productivity in Semi-arid Tropical Environments (RNPS-25) (NATP, ICAR), 246p.
    10. Batjes, N.H., Bhattacharyya, T., Mandal, C., Dijkshoorn, K., Pal, D.K., Milne, E. & Gajbhiye, K.S. 2004. Soil data derived from SOTER for studies of carbon stocks and change in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (India) (Ver. 1.0, GEFSOC Project). Report 2004/06. ISRIC-World Soil Information, Wageningen and NBSS&LUP (ICAR), India.
    11. Saxena, R.K., Sharma, R.C., Verma, K.S., Pal, D.K. & Mandal, A.K. 2004. “Salt-affected soils, Etah district (Uttar Pradesh). NBSS-CSSRI Publ. No. 108, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, pp.85.
    12. Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Bhattacharyya, T., Durge, S.L., Mandal, C., Sarkar, D., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, S.P., Jagat Ram, Ram Gopal, Pal, D.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Milne, E., Singh, B. & Aurangabadkar, B. 2004. “Benchmark Soil Series of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), India”. Special publication for GEFSOC Project “Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Change at National Scale”. NBSS&LUP, India. p.186.
    13. Durge, S.L., Kamble, G.K., Bhattacharya, T., Chandran, P.,Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Sarkar, D., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, S.P., Jagat Ram, Ram Gopal, Pal, D.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Milne, E. & Singh, B. 2005. “A journey through the river Ganges to study the tropical paddy-wheat soils of Indo-Gangetic Plains, India”. Special publication for “Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock and Change at National Scale.”. NBSS & LUP, India. p.182.
    14. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Mandal, C., Durge, S.L., Sarkar, D., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, S.P., Jagat Ram, Ram Gopal, Pal, D.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Milne, E., Singh, B. & Aurangabadkar, B. 2005. “Soils, land use, management and climatic datasets of the Indo-Gangetic plains, India for CENTURY and Roth-C modelling”. Special publication for "Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Change at National Scale". NBSS&LUP, India. p.174.
    15. Chandran, P., Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L., Mandal, C., Sarkar, D., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, S.P., Jagat Ram, Ram Gopal, Pal, D.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Milne, E., Aurangabadker, B., Mendhekar, P. & Singh, B. 2005. "SOTER (Soil and Terrain Digital Databases) IGP, India". Special Publication for “Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Change at National Scale”. NBSS&LUP, India. p.101.
    16. Bhattacharyya, T., Mandal, C., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L., Sarkar, D., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, S.P., Jagat Ram, Ram Gopal, Pal, D.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Milne, E., Aurangabadkar, B. & Singh, B. 2005. “Natural Resource Atlas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India”. Special Publication for “Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Change at National Scale”, NBSS&LUP, India. p.188.
    17. Bhattacharya, T., Easter, M., Paustian, K., Killian, K., Williams, S., Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Durge, S.L., Pal, D.K., Gajbhiye, K.S., Milne, E. & Singh B. 2005. “Description of newly added crop database and modified crop files: Indo-Gangetic Plains, India case study” Special publication for “Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Change at National Scale.”. NBSS & LUP, India, p.196.
    18. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Gajbhiye, K.S., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. & Mandal, C. 2005. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock and Change at National Scale, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), India, Final Project Report, NBSS&LUP (ICAR), India, p.76.
    19. Easter, M., Paustian, K., Killian, K., Boyack, T., Williams, S., Feng, T., Coleman, K., Swan, A., Al-Adamat, R., Bhattacharyya, T., Cerri, C.E.P., Kamoni, P., Batjes, N. & Milne, E. 2005. User Instructions : GEFSOC Soil Carbon Modelling System. NREL, Colorado State University, USA, p.74.
    20. Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Durge, S.L., Nimkar, A.M., Raja, P., Bhattacharyya, T., Telpande, B., Mandal, C. & Pal, D.K. 2006. Soils of Gunegal Research Farm of CRIDA (Hyderabad), Rangareddy District, Andhra Pradesh, NBSS Publ. No. 948, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, 164 pp + Soil map on 1:2200 scale.
    21. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. (Mrs) Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Manna, M.C., Ramesh, V. & Wani, S.P. 2006 Morphological Properties of Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-Arid Tropics, India, Working Report of “Identifying Systems for Carbon Sequestration and Increased productivity in Semi-arid Tropical Environments (RNPS-25) (NATP, ICAR), 100p.
    22. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. (Mrs) Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., Sharma, R.P., Manna, M.C., Ramesh, V. & Wani, S.P. 2004. Estimation of Carbon Stock in the Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-Arid Tropics, India, Working Report of “Identifying Systems for Carbon Sequestration and Increased productivity in Semi-arid Tropical Environments (RNPS-25) (NATP, ICAR),86p.
    23. Bhattacharyya, T., Venugopalan, M.V., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. and Mandal C. 2007. Total carbon stock in India soils. Final Project Report, NBSS&LUP (ICAR), Nagpur. P.199.
    24. Bhattacharyya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., (Mrs) Mandal, C., Pal, D.K., Venugopalan, M.V., Durge, S.L., Srivastava, P., Dubey, P.N., Kamble, G.K., and Sharma, R.P. Wani, S.P. Rego, T.J. Ramesh, V., Pathak, P., Manna, M.C. and Sahrawat, K.L.. (2007). Physical & Chemical Properties of Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-Arid Tropics, India. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no 35. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), 236 pp.
    25. Ramesh, V., Wani, S.P. Rego, T.J., Sharma, K.L., Bhattacharyya, T., Saharawt, K.L., Padmaja, K.V., Gangadhar Rao, D., Venkateswarulu, B., Vanaja, M., Manna, M.C., Srinivas, K., and Maruthi, V. (2007). Chemical Characterization of Selected Benchmark Spots for C sequestration in the Semi-Arid Tropics, India. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no. 32, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), 106 pp
    26. T. Bhattacharyya, P. Chandran, S.K. Ray, (Mrs) C. Mandal, D.K. Pal, M.V. Venugopalan, S.L. Durge, P. Srivastava, P.N. Dubey, G.K. Kamble, R.P. Sharma, S.P. Wani, T.J. Rego, V. Ramesh and M.C. Manna (2008). Characterization of benchmark spots of selected red and black soils in semi-arid tropics of India. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no. 42. Working Report of “Identifying Systems for Carbon Sequestration and Increased Productivity in Semi-Arid Tropical Environments (RNPS-25), National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). 388pp.
    27. Pal, D.K., Lal, Sohan, Bhattacharya, T., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K., Sayavathi, P.L.A., Raja, P., Maurya, U.K., Durge, S.L. and Kamble, G.K. (2010). Pedogenic thresholds in Benchmark soils under rice-wheat cropping system in a climosequence of the Indo-Gangetic Allluvial Plains, Final Project Report (RPF III), March, 2010, NBSS & LUP, Nagpur, India, p193.
    28. Satyavathi, P.L.A., Ray, S.K., Chandran, P., Raja, P., Durge, S.L. and Pal, D.K. (2010). “Ascertaining the pedogenic processes for the clay enriched Bss horizons of Vertisols.” Final Project Report, NBSS& LUP, Nagpur. p.45.

    Review Papers

    1. Pal, D.K., Dasog, G.S., Vadivelu, S., Ahuja, R.L. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2000. Secondary calcium carbonate in soils of arid and semi-arid regions of India. In “Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems” (eds. R. Lal, J.M. Kimble, H. Eswaran and B.A. Stewart), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fl, pp. 149-185.
    2. Velayutham, M. Pal, D.K. & Bhattacharyya, T. 2000. Organic carbon stock in soils of India. In “Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems” (eds. R. Lal, J.M. Kimble & B.A. Stewart), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fl, pp.71-96.
    3. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Velayutham, M., Chandran, P. & Mandal, C. 2001. Total carbon stock in Indian soils : issues, priorities and management. In : Land Resource Management for Food and Environmental Security, Soil Conservation Society of India, New Delhi, pp.1-46.
    4. Pal, D.K., Bhattacharyya, T., Srivastava, P., Chandran, P. & Ray, S.K. 2009. Soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains : their historical perspective and management. Current Science 9:1193-1201.

    Popular Articles

    1. Jagdish Prasad, Ray, S.K. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2004). Use sewage effluent with caution, Agricultural Extension Review, November-December, p. 25-26.
    2. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Mandal, C., Ray, S.K., Gupta, R.K. and Gajbhiye, K.S. Managing soil carbon stocks in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, 2004, p.44; http://www.rwc-prism.cgiar.org andhttp://www.cimmyt.org/.
    3. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Chandran, P., Ray, S.K. and Mandal, C. (2005). Bharatbarsher matir jaiba ebong ajaiba carbon, Mrittika Bigyan, Bigyan Mela, November-December, p. 7-9.
    4. Bhattacharyya, T., Ray, S.K., Sahoo, A.K., Durge, S.L., Chandran, P., Sarkar, D. and Pal, D.K. Pan formation in soils under paddy-potato/mustard-paddy system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, West Bengal. Rice-Wheat Consortium, 2006. http://www.rwc.cgiar.org/Pub-Info.asp?ID+165.
    5. Pal, D.K. 2007. Pedogenic threshold in soils of dry climate : a threat to soil health. Newsletter, Indian Society of Soil Science, No. 23, Sept., 2007, New Delhi.
    6. Jagdish Prasad 2009. Draksh Lagavdisathi Jameen Kashi Asavi. Drakshvrit (April), 6-7.
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