Udaipur

    About the Centre
     

     

    The Western Regional Centre of National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning sanctioned during the Vth Five Year Plan became functional at Vadodara in 1981 to cater the needs of the state of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The Centre was shifted to Udaipur, Rajasthan in 1990 and functioned in the space provided by the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur. Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur has transferred 1 ha land in University Campus for construction of office-cum-laboratory building and presently the office is functioning in this new premises.

     

    Mandate
    • Soil survey and mapping of the soils of the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat at tehsil, district, state and regional level to promote scientific land use programmes in collaboration with state soil survey and land use organization, state agricultural universities and other user agencies.
    • To conduct and promote research in areas of pedology, soil survey and land evaluation and land use planning.
    • Soil correlation, classification and characterization of benchmark soils at soil series level in liaison with state soil survey agencies.
    • Teaching and research activities in collaboration with Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur towards M.Sc. and Ph.D degrees.
    • Consultancy.
    List of Scientist
    Name Designation Discipline E-mail  
    Dr. R.S. Singh Principal Scientist & Head Soil Science singhsakal@gmail.com View Biodata
    Dr. S.S. Rao Principal Scientist Agronomy raoss61@yahoo.co.in View Biodata
    Dr. T.P. Verma Sr. Scientist Soil Science verma_tp@yahoo.com View Biodata
    Dr. R.S. Meena Scientist Soil Science mramswaroop@gmail.com View Biodata
    Sh. Roshan Lal Meena Scientist Agronomy roshan.meena34@gmail.com View Biodata
    Shri Pravash C. Moharana Scientist Soil Science pravashiari@gmail.com View Biodata
    Shri Sunil Kumar Scientist Soil Science sunilcoa@gmail.com View Biodata
    Mr. Mahaveer Nogiya Scientist Soil Science mahi.nogiya3@gmail.com View Biodata
    Infrastructure

    Laboratories

    The Regional Centre, Udaipur is well equipped with physical and chemical laboratories, cartography and other facilities. The physical laboratory has a pressure membrane apparatus, sophisticated weighing balances and other necessary facilities. The chemical laboratory is equipped with sophisticated instruments such as computer aided CN analyzer, Spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for elemental analysis, and Flame Photometer, Colorimeter, Nitrogen analyzer and other basic instruments.

    Library

    The library has a sizeable collection of reference books, journals and reports. There are over 1000 reference books in the library. Further requirements are met from Hqrs., Nagpur, as well as the library of MPUA&T, Udaipur.

    Cartography & GIS

    A full-fledged Geographic Information system (GIS) Lab has been established with 4 nos. of Computers, Scanner, printers and high resolution plotters. This lab has the latest GIS softwares like Arc Info, Geomedia, Geomatica, Scanx, Ecognition and ILWIS. Remote sensing applications activities are also a part of this laboratory.

    Achievement (Project completed with very brief note)

    Institute Projects











     

    1. Soil resource mapping of Rajasthan state on 1:250,000 scale.
      The state of Rajasthan has geographical area of 34.2 m ha and accounts for eleven percent of total geographical area (TGA) of the country. The state is endowed with wide variation in climate, geology, landforms and vegetation, which are reflected in the development of a large variety of soils. The soil mapping units, including rock outcrops, cover 99.7 percent and the 'Ranns' water bodies, habitation comes around 0.34 percent of the TGA. The state has been broadly described in 117 soil series out of which 22 soil series have been correlated. The soils belong to 5 Orders, 8 suborders, 16 Great groups, 32 super groups and 86 families.

      In order to cater the needs of various user agencies, thematic maps, such as soil depth, texture, drainage, available water capacity, erosion, calcareousness, pH, salinity, sodicity, etc. have been generated using the master soil resource map and the survey database. In order to ameliorate the problematic soils, an assessment of degradation of soils has been made. The data show that 11.61 m ha, representing 33.2 percent of TGA in Rajasthan is affected by various soil degradation problems induced mainly by human –intervention. The most serious problem is of wind erosion, causing loss of top soil and/or terrain deformation, and has affected 6.6 m ha representing 19.4 percent area. Water erosion has been observed in 3.0 m ha, representing 7.1 percent of TGA. Salinity alone, and in combination with water/wind erosion and flooding, has been found to affect 1.4 m ha, representing 4.0 percent area. The area not fit for agriculture, including rock outcrops and Rann/ salt flat and active sand dunes accounts for 5.2 m ha, representing 15.2 percent of the TGA. The master soil resource map and the thematic maps generated are not only useful for optimizing land use but also form an important base for delineating agro-ecological zones at the state level and for analogous transfer of agro-technology.
    2. Soil resource mapping of Gujarat state on 1:250,000 scale.
      The state of Gujarat covers an area of 19.6 m ha and account for six percent of the total geographical area (TGA) of the country. The state is endowed with wide variations in climate, geology, landforms and vegetation which are reflected in the development of a large variety of soils. The soil mapping units, including rock outcrops, cover 86.4 percent and the Rann of Kachchh covers another 11.0 percent of the TGA.

      The soils belong to 5 Orders, 11 Suborders, 20 Greatgroups, 45 Subgroups, 124 Families and 145 soil series. The Inceptisols are dominantly observed covering 51 percent, followed by Entisols, Aridisols, Vertisols covering 13.8, 10.6 and 8.9 percent of TGA, respectively; the Alfisols are least represented covering 0.6 percent area. The rock outcrops constitute 1.8 percent of the TGA.

      In order to cater the needs of various user agencies, thematic maps, such as soil depth, texture, drainage, available water capacity, erosion, calcareousness, pH, salinity, sodicity, etc. have been generated using the master soil resource map and the survey database. In order to ameliorate the problematic soils, an assessment of degradation of soils has been made. The data show that 8.1 m ha, representing 41.5 percent of TGA in Gujarat, is affected by various soil degradation problems included mainly by human- intervention. The most serious problem is of water erosion, causing loss of top soil and/or terrain deformation, and has affected 5.2 m ha representing 2.3 percent of the TGA. Salinity alone and in combination with water/wind erosion and flooding has been found to affect 2.5 m ha representing 12.7 percent area. The area not fit for agriculture, including rock outcrops and Rann/salt flat, accounts for 1.8 and 11.0 percent of the TGA, respectively.
    3. Assessment of soil erosion/loss of Rajasthan.
      The NBSS&LUP, Nagpur and the CSWCR&T, Dehradun have jointly initiated the preparation of soil erosion maps of the different states using the components of Universal Sol loss Equation (USLE) utilizing the field data of soil resource maps (on 1:250,000 scale) of NBSS&LUP. The preparation of the individual state soil erosion map forms first step in this endeavour. The state of Rajasthan has an area of 3,42,479 sq. km and is divided physiographically into two regions: western Plans and the Central Highlands. The rainfall ranges from 100 mm in extreme western part of Jaisalmer district to 900 mm in eastern part of Jhalawar and Banswara district. The land degradation in the state is mostly due to wind and water erosion resulting into the loss of top soil. The loss of soil due to erosion vary from different land uses in addition to quality of sol and intensity of climate parameters especially rainfall and wind. Since soil erosion is the major reason for soil loss and consequent decline in soil productivity, it becomes imperative for the land use managers and land use planners to adopt appropriate soil conservation measures to check it.

      The spatial distribution and the data on soil loss indicated that about 43.35 percent area in the state can be managed with slight management practices like field bunding or with proper land cover through crop planning. About 33.82 percent area can be conserved through contour bunding and vegetative barriers. Rest of the area (22.83%) is mostly affected by severe, very severe and extremely severe erosion and is very fragile. It needs utmost care for the management. If these areas are encroached by the growing population, it may lead to deforestation and denudation of forest vegetation thus exposing the soil surface to the intensity of rain. Due to this, these areas get severely eroded exposing the substrata. In order to protect these areas, the awareness campaign among the local people is of paramount importance. With the participative approach by the people of the areas could be ether brought under natural vegetation/crop cover.
    4. Evaluation of soils of Rajasthan for district land use planning
      Soil site characteristics determine the degree of suitability of land resources for optimal planning and help in expansion of area under particular crop. Based on limitations of rainfall, LGP, depth, texture, salinity, surface condition for individual parameters the suitability criteria for optimal, moderate and marginal class have been finalized for major field crops, fruit crops, trees and grasses of arid and semi arid region. Suitability assessment of major soil series of Rajasthan and mapping units of Soil resource map of Rajasthan on 1:250,000 scale have been made.

      Agro-ecological units of east Rajasthan (18.2 lakh ha) comprising Sawai Madhopur, Karauli, Dholpur and Bharatpur districts were evaluated for crop suitability in relation to physiography. Agro-ecological units of north-east Rajasthan (29.5 lakh ha) comprising Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Tonk districts were evaluated for crop suitability in relation to physiography. Agro-ecological units of north Rajasthan comprising Churu, Jhunjunu and Sikar district with 30.5 lakh ha were evaluated for crop suitability in relation to physiography.

      In North Rajasthan suitability index for major crops under irrigation during Kharif (pearlmillet, castor and groundnut) and rabi (wheat, mustard, barley and gram) is between 40 to 50 except gram (26.5). Suitability for kharif crops increases with irrigation across physiographic regions. Suitability for irrigated crops is higher in Aravalli and ER upland as compared to western sandy plain and semi arid transitional plain.

      Crop suitability assessment have been made for soils of south Rajasthan (39 lakh ha) from SRM data for Banswara, Dungarpur Udaipur, Rajsamand and Chittorgarh district for ten crops under rainfed condition and six crops under irrigated condition. Under rainfed and irrigated condition overall crop suitability is in order Banswara> Chittorgarh > Dungarpur> Udaipur and Rajsamand.

      With respect to physiography in south Rajasthan, overall crop suitability is in order Eastern Rajasthan Upland > Malwa plateau> Pathar and Bundelkhand and Aravalli land scape.
    5. Soil resource inventory and land evaluation of Ajmer district for land use planning on 1:50,000 scale
      Soils of Ajmer district have been surveyed and mapped on 1:50,000 scale with 111 soil mapping units as association of 39 soil series. Soil series have been evaluated for degradation status. Most common hazard to sustainable production is the risk of moderate to severe water erosion in 12.7% and salinization in 9.1% area. Adopting soil and water conservation practices is essential for sustainable productivity. About 92 percent of the soils have available P <10 Kg/ha and 40 percent of the soils have available K between 108 to 280 Kg/ha and 50% soils have available K >280 Kg/ha. There is no definite trend of physiography with available P and K. Available Cu and Zn content is less than 1 ppm and 0.75 ppm in 60 and 90% soils, respectively. Available Mn content is <10 ppm. In 42 % soils and >10 ppm in 57% samples. While 93 percent of the soils had available Fe content of less than <10 ppm. As far as chemical properties are concerned, there is no definite relationship with landform due to variations in land use.
    6. Soil resource inventory and land evaluation of Bhilwara district for land use planning on 1:50,000 scale
      Bhilwara district with total geographical area of 10.45 lakh ha has been mapped on 1:50,000 scale as association of 40 soil series in 74 mapping units. Soils of Bhilwara district have been evaluated for land capability, irrigability and fertility status with respect to physiography and at tehsil level. In the district 63% area is under land capability class (LCC) II and III. In general area in LCC II & III is higher (75%) in eastern plain as compared to 37.3% in Aravalli and 19.5% in Vindhyan region. In the district, 16.6% area is affected by severe and very severe erosion and 34.5% area is moderately eroded. Severe to very severely eroded soils constitute 17-22 % area in Asind and Mandalgarh Tehsil. In general, soils of district are very low in nitrogen and medium in phosphorus and potassium.
    7. Resource characterization and constraint analysis of productivity in land use planning of micro-watershed Changeri (Udaipur)
      Watershed has been delineated in six soil units depicting variation of depth, texture and CaCO3. In shallow soils LGP was 100 days, whereas, in moderately deep soils AWC was 61 to 97 mm and it increased to 83-123 mm in deep soils. AWC played very important role in realization of higher yields in moderately deep to deep soils. Average yield of different crops obtained by the farmers of medium and large holding was 25-40% higher as compared to small and marginal holdings because 60 percent of land holdings in marginal category and 42 percent land holding of small and semi medium category were having shallow soils (< 50 cm soil depth, slope ranging from 3-8 percent and with moderate erosion) with 50-60 AWC.

      The major constraint: Soil depth and availability of water.

      Solutions: Micro water harvesting and provide one irrigation at long dry spells in kharif season. In shallow soils, encourage pulse/sesame crop in kharif season. In moderately deep/deep soils where irrigation facilities are not available, groundnut should be encouraged instead of maize. In deep soils where water stagnates in kharif season, soybean crop can be grown as it can withstand water stagnation but it can not tolerate water shortage. In rabi season cumin and mustard should be encouraged instead of wheat crop due to their low water requirement as with same amount of water we can double the area.
    8. Soil resource survey and mapping of soils of Bundi district on 1:50,000 scale
      Bundi district (5.18 lakh ha) constitutes eastern Rajasthan upland (40.5%) and Vindhyan landscape (59.5%). The area has been classified with respect to physiography as hills, valley, pediments and plains in eastern Rajasthan upland and Vindhyan landscape. An area of 2.18 lakh ha was surveyed and mapped in Nenwa and Indergarh tehsil on 3X3 km grid. Survey of the district was completed and 17 series each in eastern Rajasthan upland and Vindhyan landscape have been tentatively identified and described.

      Gudha Gopalpura and Hindoli series in hilly terrain of the eastern upland and Nai Ka Talab series in hilly/plateau region of the Vindhyan landscape are Lithic Ustorthents. Jawaharsagar and Karundi series are Lithic Haplustepts and Rajpura series is Typic Haplustepts in hilly terrain of Vindhyan landscape. In hilly region soils are generally very shallow to shallow, loamy/loamy skeletal with severe erosion and surface stoniness. Pediment in eastern Rajasthan upland (Fazalpur, Dabeta, Sukhpura) are mainly Lithic Ustorthents/Haplustepts. Pediments are generally shallow, loamy with moderate to severe erosion and stoniness in eastern Rajasthan upland whereas pediments in Vindhyan region are shallow (Soria and Narsinghpura) to moderately deep (Megha Rawaton), fine loamy with severe erosion.

      Valley soils both in eastern Rajasthan upland and Vindhyan landscape are Typic Haplustepts, deep, fine textured with slight to moderate erosion. Slope is higher in valley portion of Vindhyan region as compared to eastern Rajasthan upland. Ravinous plain (Nayagaon) are Typic Ustorthents in eastern Rajasthan upland and Typic Haplusterts (Sinta) in Vindhyan landscape. Soils are generally very deep, fine loamy with severe erosion and dissections. In plains of eastern Rajasthan upland soils are generally with slope of 1-3%, Typic Haplustepts (Ponduli series)/ Haplusterts (Karwar series), fine textured with slight to moderate erosion. Pandola series (Lithic Haplustepts) is shallow, loamy textured. In plains of Vindhyan landscape, Sinta, KVK, Delunda and Dehit series are Typic Haplusterts, deep, fine textured, whereas, Jhunwasa series is Typic Ustorthents, deep and fine textured with slight to moderate erosion and slope.

      In general valley soils in eastern Rajasthan upland and Vindhyan landscape constitutes potential area for cultivation. Plains with less than one percent slope in Vindhyan landscape have problems of drainage and sodicity (Delunda and Dehit series). Pediments in eastern Rajasthan upland are generally barren (Fazalpur and Sukhpura series), whereas, pediments in Vindhyan landscape constitutes pockets of cultivated land (Soria and Megha Rawaton series) in between barren lands (Narsinghpura). Hilly portion both in eastern Rajasthan upland and Vindhyan region are mainly severely eroded associated with rock outcrops and constitutes mainly forest area in the district.
    9. Effect of soil variability on crop productivity for land use planning in AESR 4.2
      For using poor quality of water use of 1-2 t/ha gypsum every year was recommended. For obtaining full potential of the maize, minimum 60 cm deep soil along with good drainage are required. Shallow (50 cm) and moderately deep (65-70 cm) sandy loam soils are not suitable for growing soybean. Whereas deep clay loam and clay soils due to higher water holding capacity are suitable for soybean crop. Ajwain can be grown in clay loam to clay soils as rainfed with proper rotation.

      Mustard crop can be grown in 80-100 cm depth in sandy loam –sandy clay loam soils with three irrigations and high management. For wheat in shallow sandy loam soils minimum 6 irrigations are required. In moderately deep to deep sandy loam soils five irrigations are required. In deep clay loam-clay soils four irrigations are required.
    10. Suitability evaluation of dominant soil series of Ajmer district for land use planning
      Soil suitability evaluation of dominant soil series of Ajmer district shows that the Jharwasa, Jawaja, Makarwali and Kalera series can be put under cultivation of crops with the use of improved seeds, recommended dose of fertilizer, Gypsum where required (Jharwas and Kalera series), micronutrient especially Zinc, use of sprinkler system of irrigation, field bunding, addition of FYM, etc. The Beawar, Pari, Kalesara and Kabania series have substantially serious problems the chief among them being inadequate depth, low organic matter status, low fertility. These soils can be put under cultivation but to maintain the viability of farmers, keeping of cattle, sheep or goats is necessary as supporting mechanism. In addition all soils require water storage structures like village or farm ponds to meet the needs of protective irrigation in case of failure of monsoon or occurrence of a long dry spell. In the entire district of Ajmer keeping in view the semi-arid climate marked by rainfall of high temporal and spatial variability as well as occurrence of long dry spells, which are very common, mixed farming is a must. Waste lands or land not fit for agriculture should imperatively be brought under grassland, silvi-pasture, silvi-horti or horti-pastoral system of farming. Sheep and goat rearing for wool and meat, dairy cattle rearing for supplementary income are measures necessary to maintain economic viability of the rural population.
    11. Crop yield modeling under varying soil moisture in different types of soils
      For developing the regression model the weightage were assigned (0.10 to 0.80) to variables affecting the crop yield. The highest numerical value was assigned for contribution of each variable towards maximum crop production. During kharif season soil moisture was measured at weekly interval for maize and soybean and for mustard and wheat in rabi season. The predicted yield values developed by model were having difference of 0.7-13.3 % (Maize), 1.9-7.0 % (Soybean), 1.6-2.9 % (mustard) and 0.3 to 1.0 % (wheat) from observed crop yield. In the case study presented here, the relationship was found with climate-specific regressions between a soil indicator and average yields. The selected soil indicator was available water capacity (AWC). Estimates of the potential production of regions can assist in quantifying carrying capacity of ecosystems. Use of crop yield model will help identify the opportunities and constraints for yield improvement in future with the implementation of improved crop production and natural resource management technologies for the rainfed regions.
    12. Land Resource Inventory for farm planning in different agro-ecological regions of India - Bhadesar Tehsil (cluster of 10 villages) in Chittaurgarh District (Rajasthan)
      The detailed soil survey and land evaluation of cluster of ten villages (24041’14.5” to 240 45’11.6”N latitude and 74020’16.4” to 74026’34.4”E longitude) in Bhadesar tehsil of Chittaurgarh district was undertaken at cadastral level (1:4000 scale) to identify potential and constraints at village level, suggesting suitability of crops and alternative land use options.

      Majority of soils of the villages are moderately alkaline (57%), medium to high in organic carbon (92%), very low to low in available nitrogen (97%), medium in available P (61%), medium in available K (57%), low to marginal in available zinc (84%), low to marginal Cu content (96%), low to marginal in Fe (78%) and sufficient to high in available Mn (73%).Whereas, in Surajpura village major soils are moderately alkaline (61%), medium to high in O.C.(95%), medium in avl.P (71%), medium to high in Avl.K (88%) and major area are deficient in zinc, copper and iron and sufficient in manganese.

      It is revealed that about 68% area of villages is suitable for cluster bean, 53% for chickpea, 52% for soybean, black gram and sesame, 51% for groundnut and 64% for maize in rainfed conditions. Most of these crops have major area in Bhadsora, Narbadia, Parliyawas, Madanpura, Sohankhera and Nardari villages. In irrigated conditions, nearly 64% area of villages is suitable for mustard, 61% for wheat, barley, cotton, 52% for pea and fenugreek and which mostly occurs in Bhadsora, Narbadia, Sohankhera, Daulatpura, Parliyawas and Nardari villages. It is revealed that about 52% area of villages is suitable for guava fruit. Out of total area under this class for guava about 60 % area is grown in Bhadsora, Narbadia, Parliyawas and Bagund villages.

      Soils which were unsuitable for crops due to limitation of shallow depth, stoniness, erosion, salinity and sodicity were assed for grasses, trees and shrubs. Soils series Madanpura, Daulatpura-a, Daulatpura-b, Bhadsora-a, Bagund and Narbadia-a, Gudha are marginal or not suitable or for field crops due to limitation of shallow soil depth, stoniness, erosion, slope and salinity/sodicity. These Madanpura and Gudha series are suitable for shallow rooted species like Prosopis juliflora, Cenchrus ciliaris and Sporobolus sp with high input of moisture and conservation measures. Narbadia–b series is suitable for Acacia Senegal and Sporobolus sp., whereas Bhadsora–a series is suitable for Sporobolus, Lasiurus sp and Prosopis juliflora. Bagund and Narbadia–a series suitable for Prosopis juliflora, Acacia Senegal, Acacia nilotica, Casuriana and grasses like Sporobolus, Lasiurus, Cenchrus ciliaris.

      In Cluster of ten villages major areas are covered by nine suggested land unit (SLU) 5,6,3,1 and 9 each covering 24.7, 16.5, 16.2, 13.8, 9 percent of TGA, respectively. While other SLU units occurring between 1 to 3 percent of TGA. In Surajpura village, six suggested land use units have been identified and larger area are covered by SLU 6, 5,4 and 9 each covering 26,24,16 &14% of TGA, respectively. SLU unit 5 and 6 are very good fine soils slight problem of nutrients and permeability suitable for most of kharif and rabi crops like maize, wheat, mustard, soybean, sorghum, cotton, groundnut with balanced application of N,P,K and micronutrients fertilizers. These soils are also suited to fruit crops like guava and orange. SLU 3 are shallow, loamy soils having stoniness and erosion problems, hence need proper soil and water conservation and suitable for shallow rooted crops like maize, pearl millet and cluster bean. But these soils are best suited for grasses like Lasiurus sindicus and Sporobolus sps.  SLU unit 1 is very shallow to shallow soil depth, severe erosion, stoniness and droughtiness. Hence they are not suited for crops and better suited for trees/bushes like Prosopis juliflora and grasses like Cenchrus ciliaris and Dicanthium annulatum with high soil and conservation measures viz. contour bunding and contour ditches.

    Externally Funded Projects (National)



     

    1. Reflectance Libraries for development of soil sensors for the assessment of the state of soil resources
      Reflectance at different wavelengths were recorded at four sites each in the state of Gujarat (Manasa-Vijapur and Bhuj area) and Rajasthan (Gogunda- Udaipur area) have been selected for study of reflectance characteristics in relation to surface features and soil properties. Majorlandforms/physiography have been delineated on the basis of image attributes like shape, pattern and colour with reference to the SOI toposheet, existing land use., variation in soil characteristics. High reflectance value have been recorded for bare rocks, gravelly soils, dry soils, sandy soils, saline soils, eroded soils and red soils in the visible range. Rocky/gravelly surfaces reflect more incident radiation as compared to other soil surfaces. Fine texture soil surfaces reflect light at lower intensity as compared to coarse texture soils. Reflectance of incident radiant energy is lower in moist soils as compared to dry soils. Smooth surfaces reflect more incident light than rough surface. Salt encrustation tends to make the incident light to reflect with higher intensity. Similarly red coloured soils in 5YR hue also give higher reflectance. Muddy water reflects more light as compared to clear water.Salt encrustation and soil erosion tend to give brighter image characteristics as compared to normal surfaces. Water logging tends to give a darker colour as compared to normal surfaces. Rocky surfaces also give darker colour to the image but are differentiated from other dark colour image features.
    2. Identification, characterization and delineation of Agro-economic constraints of oilseed based production system in rain fed ecosystem.
      In order to identify constraints in production of oilseed crops, mustard and groundnut Bharatpur in Rajasthan and Rajkot and Junagadh in Gujarat were selected. 144 farmers representing marginal, small and large holdings were selected in major oilseeds producing tehsils in the district. Socio-economic survey was undertaken for mustard in Bharatpur Rajasthan and Groundnut in Rajkot and Junagarh district in Gujarat.
    3. Integrated National Agricultural Resources Information System-Soil Resource data base
      Attributes of 375 mapping units delineated in soil resource map of Rajasthan on 1:250,000 scale have been entered in MS Access programme. This information is being utilized to prepare digitized soil map of Rajasthan and thematic maps. Information is being proposed to be made available to the users through the website of the Institute on soils of Rajasthan.
    4. Land Use Planning for management of Agricultural Resources in Arid Eco-System
      Resource characterization and constraint analysis of productivity in land use planning of micro-watershed Changeri district Udaipur.

      Detailed soil survey of the watershed was completed on cadastral map of 1:4000. Soil map was digitized using GIS, Geomedia and thematic maps for various soil parameters have been prepared. Watershed has been delineated in six soil units depicting variation of depth, texture and CaCO3. Soil depth is between 40-50 cm in 45.6% area, 65-75 cm in 22.2%, 90 cm in 5.4% area and >100 cm in 26.7% area. Distribution of soil characteristics with respect to pH, EC, O.C., CaCO3 and available micronutrients has been determined from thematic maps.

      Suitability for 9 crops under rainfed condition and 5 crops under irrigated condition have been evaluated by matching soil site characteristics with crop requirements. Soil depth is major limiting factor in 35.6% area whereas high pH and ESP are major limiting factor for crops in 26.7% area. 27.6% soil are generally suitable to moderately suitable during Kharif and suitable for rabi crops under irrigation and 72.3 % soils moderate to marginally suitable for different crops.

      The ground water indicated slight increase in pH towards the end of rabi season in February – March and a decline during rainy season with fresh recharge of ground water. During irrigation season from Oct.2002 to Jan.2003 there has been average increase in pH by 0.5 almost in all the wells. E.C. of ground water during September 2002 varied between 0.4 - 0.8 dSm-1 in wells around pond and between 1.0- 1.5 dSm-1 in wells at distance from pond.

      Wheat yield was about 49.6 – 51.3 Q/ha with 6 irrigation in shallow soils and 5 irrigations in moderately deep to deep soils. Yield reduction in moderately deep soils was almost 40% with 3 irrigation as compared to 5 irrigations. Increase in fertilizer levels from N80 P40 to N120 P60 increased wheat yield by 3.5 to 4.4 Q/ha. One additional irrigation in shallow soils compensated the limiting effect of soil depth and yield level can be achieved as that of moderately deep and deep soils. Under rainfed condition average yield of maize in shallow soils (< 50 cm) was only 3.1 to 11.0 q/ha which increased to 12.5-20.3 q/ha in moderately deep to deep soils. Two supplemental irrigations have increased the yield to 24.6-34.1 q/ha where as one irrigation gave 21.5 q/ha yield. Under rainfed condition groundnut yield was 3.7-5.6q/ha in shallow soils(< 50 cm) which increased to 11.6q/ha in moderately deep to deep soils. One supplemental irrigation resulted in significantly higher yield (18.2q/ha).

    Consultancy Projects

    Soil resource mapping of rubber growing areas of Kerela and Tamil Nadu on 1:50,000 scale (World Bank) through Rubber Board of India

    Soil survey and mapping of rubber growing areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu have been carried out on 1:50,000 scale to characterize, classify and map the soils, identify the problems and potentials of the area and prepare soil fertility maps to facilitate efficient fertilizer recommendation.

    Geological forms (Khondalitic and laterite), mounds and hills predominantly affect soil characteristics. Soils developed on mounds are generally deep, sandy clay loam to clay, yellowish brown to red with low base saturation. Soils developed on hills are moderately deep, sandy caly to clay, strong brown to reddish brown with high base saturation. Soils developed on lateritic landscape are deep, sandy clay loam in with 25 - 43 % base saturation. Soils on Khondalite landform are moderately deep to deep, sandy clay loam to clay and high base saturation. Organic carbon, available P and K in soils developed on Laleritic landform are lower as compared to soils developed on Khonalites. Available Ca and Mg is higher in soils developed on Latritic land scape as compared to those developed on Khondalites. Soils developed on mound upland are suitable for rubber cultivation whereas soils developed on summit side slopes and hills are moderate to marginally suitable.

    Concentration of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Fe in rubber plantation of 10-15 years is generally higher as compared to younger as well as old planation. Concentration Mn and Zn are higher in younger plantation upto 10 years and decreases afterwards. Content of P, K, Ca and Mn in rubber plants in Lateritic landform is generally lower as compared to rubber grown on Khondalitic land form. Available Mg and available Fe is higher in lateritic landform as compared to Khondalitic landform. There is no significant difference with respect to available Cu and Zn.

    Ongoing Projects

    Institute Projects

    • Soil resource inventory and land evaluation of Chittaurgarh district for land use planning.
    • Development of district level land use plan for Bundi district (Rajasthan) under arid and semi arid ecosystem.
    • Correlation of soil series of India and their placement in the National Register for the western Region (Gujarat & Rajasthan).
    • Land use planning of Chanavada watershed in Girwa tehsil, Udaipur district, Rajasthan for integrated development.
    • Land Resource Inventory for Farm Planning in Jhalarapatan Block of Jhalawar District of Rajasthan.
    • Studies on soil minerals and their genesis in selected benchmark spots representing different agro-eco sub regions of India.

    Externally funded Projects (National)

    Georeferenced Soil Information System for Land Use Planning and Monitoring Soil and Land Quality for Agriculture, NAIP funded project.

    Collaborative Projects

    Enrichment of land degradation datasets with soil datasets of different states of India (Gujarat and Rajasthan)

    Externally funded projects (Foreign)

    NIL

    Externally Funded (Sponsored Projects)

    NIL

    Capacity Building

    Post Graduate Teaching and Education

    Based on MOU(memorandum of understanding) between Regional Centre, NBSS&LUP, Udaipur and MPUA&T, Udaipur for post graduate teaching and research guidance to the students of Rajasthan College of Agriculture, and College of Technology and Engineering, MPUA&T, Udaipur, the following courses were taught.

    1. Soil survey and land use planning (SCHEM-634)
    2. Remote sensing and GIS (SWC-623).
    3. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for soil water and crop studies (SCHEM-523).

    Training Imparted

    1. Institute level Training Programmes
      • Organization of Training for Resource Persons (Teachers) for Children Congress-2010: One day training for the teachers of the region on the Land Resources:use for prosperity, save for prosperity on 4.9.10 for 40 school teachers attended the training.
      • Demonstration of some basic soil characteristics like color, texture, pH, O.C. etc for Higher Secondary and Sr. Secondary students of Happy Model Sr. Secondary School and Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 1 of Pratapnagar, Udaipur on July 21 and 22, 2011.
      • Demonstration of some basic soil characteristics like color, texture, pH, O.C. etc for Sr. Secondary students of Alok Senior Secondary School, Udaipur on November 4& 5,2011 for preparation of projects in National Children Science Congress.
    2. Sponsored Training Programmes
      Crop modeling for land use planning at NBSS & LUP (ICAR), R. C. Udaipur from 05.07.10 to 25.07.10
    Linkages

    Regional Centre has close coordination with ICAR institutes, state Agricultural Universities, State Govt. agencies and NGO's in the region for soil correlation, identification of benchmark soils and crop productivity assessment under different environment.

    • Dr.Aditya Kumar Singh participated in Krishi Vigyan Mela 2008 organized at village Mundawli, Padawali Khurd, Udaipur for dissemination of technology to end user (farmers) for growing crops in different types of soils on 2nd  February 08 organized by MPUA&T, Udaipur.
    • Liaison with state soil survey agencies for soil correlation and maintain uniformity in soil survey procedure and mapping.
    • Scientists of the centre are associated with Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur with post graduate teaching and research guidance to M.Sc., B.E., M.E. and Ph.D. students.
    • Stake holders meet on climate change under National Initiative on climate Resilient  Agriculture (NICRA) in collaboration with Directorate of Water management ,Bhubanesswar was attended by Dr. R.S.Singh Head Reginal Centre and Dr. T.P.Verma and R.K.Naitam  which was held on January 31,2012 in RCA campus, Udaipur.
    • Dr.R.S.Singh, Principal Scientist & Head,  Dr. T.P.Verma and Dr. B.L.Tailor- T-5, attended the Interactive meeting with Stake holders cum field visit for preparation of land use plan of Chanavada Watershed (Villages Paduna & Jabla) organised by NBSS&LUP.Regional Centre on 06.06.2012 with Er.Madan Chajed, Executive Engineer, Watershed Development, Zila Parishad, Udaipur, Er. Pradip  Somani, Asst. Engineer Watershed development, Zila parishad, Dr. P.K.Singh, Associate professor Dept. of soil and water Engineering, College of Technology & Engineering, MPUA&T, Udaipur, local Panchayat Sarpanch &  local stake holders 6, 2012.
    • Given by Dr.R.S.Singh, Principal Scientist & Head, Regional Centre  on “High Science tools in watershed plan (introduction to remote sensing and GIS)” on 22nd May, 2012 in One day training programme on ‘ Planning and design of engineering structures in watershed management programme for 25th middle level official engaged in implementing IWMP  held on 22.05.2012 at CSWCR&TI, Research centre, Kota.
    • Given by Dr. B.L.Tailor, Technical Officer (T-5) on “Watershed characterization and practical on remote sensing &GIS” on 22nd May, 2012 in One day training programme on ‘ Planning and design of engineering structures in watershed management programme for 25th middle level official engazed in implementing IWMP  held on 22.05.2012 at CSWCR&TI, Research centre, Kota.
    Future Thrust Areas

    The future approach to the soil resource inventory and research needs to be holistic, the following aspects will be considered for future strategies.

    • Prospective land use planning at state and district level viz. validation of methodology development for LUP, refinement and modification of existing soil-site suitability criteria, contingent crop planning based on rainfall and water balance analysis, monitoring the impact of land use changes on quality of natural resources, identification of efficient crop zone using crop simulation models and alternative yield estimation techniques, optimum land use models etc.
    • Soil survey and mapping, refinement and updating of soil maps, monitoring soil quality/soil health.
    • Water resource/watershed studies etc.
    Major Publications (Research papers/Reports/Technical Bulletins)

    Research Papers

    1. Sharma,R.P., Rathore,M.S.,Singh,R.S. and Qureshi,F.M.(2010) Mineralogical framework of alluvial soils developed on Aravalli sediments. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 58(2):70-75.
    2. Singh, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Tanwar, S.P.S. (2009) Modelling soybean yield in different type of Soils of Udaipur district, Rajasthan – A case study. Agropedology 19(1):57-62.
    3. Singh, A.K. and Singh, R.S. (2009) Mustard yield prediction based on soil site characters in Udaipur, Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 57(2): 196-201.
    4. Singh, A.K. and Singh, R.S. (2009)  Rainfed Groundnut yield prediction based on edaphic characters in AESR 4.2 of Udaipur (Rajasthan). Annals of Arid Zone 48(2).
    5. Singh, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Singh, D. (2008). Production potential prediction of maize (Zea mays) based on edaphic characters in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 78(9): 776-780.
    6. Singh, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2008). Soil and water resources of Changeri watershed-Udaipur, Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 56(1): 106-108.
    7. Singh, A.K., Singh, R.S., Singh, S.K. and Shyampura, R.L. (2008). Interannual variation in area and productivity of crops as influenced by rainfall, soil and land holding in Changeri micro-watershed of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone 47(1): 19-23.
    8. Singh, R.S., Dubey, P.N., Singh, S.K. and Shyampura, R.L. (2008). Distribution of chemical fractions of micronutrient cations in some Vertisols under the agro-eco- sub region 4.2 of Eastern Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 56(2): 192-197.
    9. Giri, J.D., Singh, S.K., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2008). Carbon stock and its distribution in soils of Ajmer district and management stratagies for carbon sequestration. Agropedology. 18(1) 21-32.
    10. Singh, A.K. and Singh, R.S. (2007). Modelling Wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield in relation to soil characteristics and management practices. Indian Journal of Agronomy 52(4):315-320.
    11. Singh, R.S., Dubey, P.N., Sen, T.K. and Maji, A.K. (2006). Distribution of potassium in soils of Manipur encompassing physiographic and hydrothermal variations. Journal of the Indian Society of oil Science 54(2): 197-202
    12. Singh, R.S., Singh, S.K., Dubey, P.N., and Shyampura, R.L. (2006). Pedogenic distribution of iron and manganese in some vertisols of Rajasthan. Agropedology 16(2) 77-85.
    13. Singh, R.K., Singh, R.S., Singh, K.D. and Shyampura, R.L. (2005). Soil erosion map of eastern Rajasthan. Indian J. Soil Cons.33(2):118-122.
    14. Singh, S.K., Singh, R.S., Shyampura, R.L. and Pratap Narain (2005). Organic and Inorganic carbon stock in soils of Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 53 (3): 281-287.
    15. Sharma, S.S., Totawat, K.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (2004). Characterization and classification of salt affected soils of southern Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 52:209-213.
    16. Sharma, S.S., Totawat, K.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (2004). Constraint analysis for sustainability in salt affected soils of southern Rajasthan. Acta Ecologica. 26:2:57-63.
    17. Singh, S.K., Baser, B.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (2004). Variation in morphometric characteristics of Vertisols in Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 52:214-219.
    18. Chattopadhyay, T., Sahoo, A.K., Shyampura, R.L. and Singh, R.S. (2003). Sand Mineralogy of extreme hot arid eco-region soils of Rajasthan. Indian Agriculturist. 47: 241-246.
    19. Sahoo, A.K., Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2003). Characterization of soils and vertical distribution of available micronutrients under different landforms of Malwa plateau, Rajasthan. Indian Agriculturist. 47: 217-223.
    20. Singh, S.K., Baser, B.L., Shyampura, R.L. and Pratap Narain (2003). Phosphorus fractions and their relationship to weathering indices in Vertisols. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 51(3) 247-251
    21. Singh, S.K., Baser, B.L., Shyampura, R.L. and Pratap Narain (2003). Genesis of lime nodules in vertisols of Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 51(3) 273-278
    22. Jain, B.L., Singh, R.S., Giri, J.D., Sharma, J.P. and Shyampura, R.L. (2003). Agro ecological assessment of Arid regions of Gujarat for crop planning. In “Human Impact on Desert Environment.” (Eds Pratap Narain, S. Kathju, Amal Kar, M.P. Singh and Praveen Kumar) Pub. Arid Zone Research Association of India and Scientific Publishers (India) Jodhpur. p 39-43.
    23. Hada, N. and Singh, A.K. (2003) Effect of intercropping treatments on growth characters of soybean (Glycine max.), sesamum (Sesamum indicum) and maize (Zea mays) under south Rajasthan conditions. Acta Ecologica. 25(2): 84-88.
    24. Hada, N. and Singh, A.K. (2003) Dry matter production and nitrogen uptake in soybean (Glycine max.) based intercropping system on vertisols of south Rajasthan. Acta Ecologica. 25(2): 90-96.
    25. Hada, N. and Singh, A.K. (2003) Effect of row arrangement and intercrop on yield and economics of soybean (Glycine max.) based intercropping system. Acta Ecologica. 25(2): 98-103.
    26. Singh, S.K., Baser, B.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (2002) chemical composition and charge behaviour of smectites in Vertisols of Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 50 (1): 106-111.
    27. Giri, J.D., Das, K. and Shyampura, R.L. (2002) occurrence of Gypsiferous and associated soils in Bikaner district of Rajasthan and evaluation of their land use from the field pedogenic characteristics. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 50(2): 189-195.
    28. Singh, R.S., Jain, B.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (2002) Agro-ecological evaluation of Bhilwara district for crop suitability. Geographical Review of India. 64(2): 165-173.
    29. Maji, A.K. and Singh, R.S.(2002). Evaluation of site and soil for suitability of citrus in Meghalaya state. Indian J.Citriculture.1(1): 46-50.
    30. Krishna, N.D.R., Giri, J.D. and Shyampura, R.L. (2001).Characterisation of soils of part of Ghaggar river basin in Rajasthan with endoreic drainage. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49(2): 316-323.
    31. Sharma, R.K., Swami, B.N., Giri, J.D., Singh, S.K. and Shyampura, R.L. (2001). Soils of Haldi Ghati region of Rajasthan and their suitability for different land uses. Agropedology 11:23-28.
    32. Singh, R.S., Singh, S.K., Shyampura, R.L. and Jain, B.L. (2001). Water retention characteristics of some vertisols of Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49:245-249.
    33. Singh, S.K., Baser, B.L., Shyampura, R.L. (2001). Variability in hydrological properties of two vertisols derived from different parent material. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49:239-244.
    34. Singh, Aditya Kumar and Jain, G.L. (2000). Effect of sowing time, irrigation and nitrogen on grain yield and quality of durum wheat (Triticum durum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 70 (8):532-533.
    35. Giri, J.D., Sharma, J.P. and Shyampura, R.L. (2000). Assessment of suitability of soils under Narmada command in Gujarat state for irrigation using sol resources information. Agropedology 10(1):75-79.
    36. Singh, S.K., Qureshi, F.M. Shyampura, R.L. and Karan, F. (1999). Genesis and classification of soils derived from limestone. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 47:315-322.
    37. Sharma, R.K., Swami, B.N., Shyampura, R.L., Giri, J.D. and Singh ,S.K. (1999). Characterization of some soils of Haldi Ghati region of Rajasthan in relation to land physiography. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 47:329-333.
    38. Rama Krishna, N.D., Giri, J.D. and Shyampura, R.L. (1999). Influence of physiography on soil formation and land use planning in Dungarpur district, Rajasthan. Geographical Review of India. 61(3): 211-219.
    39. Giri, J.D., Singh, R.S., Shyampura, R.L. and Jain, B.L. (1999). Soil and site evaluation along coastal Gujarat for alternate land use options. J. Indian Soc. Coastal Agril. Res. XVII (1 & 2). 76-79.
    40. Singh, S.K., Shyampura, R.L., Singh, R.S., Harendranath, C.S. and Venugopal, K.R. (1998). Genesis of some soils of Goa. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44(3): 392-397.
    41. Chattopadhyay,T., Singh,R.S., Sahoo,A.K. and Shyampura,R.L. (1997). Available micronutrient status in the soils of Rajasthan soils. Agropedology 7(1):40-43.
    42. Singh, S.K., Das, K., Shyampura, R.L. and Singh, R.S. (1996). Forms of potassium in relation to soil moisture regime. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44(3): 229-233.
    43. Singh, S.K., Das, K., Shyampura, R.L. and Singh, R.S. (1996). Status and release behavior of Potassium as influenced by soil moisture regime. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44(3): 392-397.
    44. Sharma, S.S., Totawat, K.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (1996). Characterization and classfication of soil in a Toposequence over Bassaltic Terrain. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44(3): 470-475.
    45. Chattopadhyay, T., Sahoo, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (1996). Available micronutrient status in the soils of Vindhyan Scarplands of Rajasthan to soil characteristics. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 44(3): 470-475.
    46. Singh, S.K., Das, K., Shyampura, R.L., Giri, J.D., Singh, R.S. and Sehgal, J.L. (1995). Genesis and taxonomy of Black soils from Basalt and Basaltic Alluvium in Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 43(3): 430-436.
    47. Sahoo, A.K., Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (1995). Available micronutrient status in the soils of Malva Plateau (Rajasthan). Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 43(4): 698-700.
    48. Giri, J.D., Krishna, N.D.R. and Shyampura, R.L. (1994). Evaluating soil formation through field morphology rating system. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 42:292-297.
    49. Shyampura, R.L., Singh, S.K., Das, K. and Giri, J.D. (1994). Potassium reserve and release behavior in Vertisols of Rajasthan. Journal of Potassium Research 10(3): 263-270.
    50. Shyampura, R.L., Giri, J.D., Das, K. and Singh, S.K. (1994). Soil Physiographic relationship on a transact in Southern Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 42(4): 622-625.
    51. Singh, S.K., Das, K. and Shyampura, R.L. (1994). Soil physiographic relationship in Basaltic Terrain. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 42(4): 663-665.
    52. Giri, J.D., Shyampura, R.L. and Sehgal, J.L. (1994). Soil site suitability for maize in Banswara District Rajasthan. Agropedology 4:75-79.
    53. Das, K., Singh, S.K. and Shyampura, R.L. (1993). Forms of Potassium in relation to Landforms and Soil Properties of Bassaltic Terrain. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 41(3): 557-559.
    54. Giri, J.D., Krishna, N.D.R., Shyampura, R.L. and Ram Gopal. (1993). Nutrient element and their relationship with soil properties in the Alluvial Fan region of Ghaggar river, Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone 32(4): 209-213.
    55. Shyampura, R.L., Giri,J.D., Krishna, N.D.R. and Sehgal, J.L.. (1993). Genesis and classification of Red soils of Dungarpur District Rajasthan. Agropedology 3:39.
    56. Shyampura, R.L., Krishna, N.D.R. Ram Gopal and Giri, J.D. (1992). Genesis and Characterization of the Soils Across Ghaggar Flood Plain in Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone 31(3): 199-204.
    57. Sehgal, J.L., Shyampura, R.L., Singh, S.K. and Das, K. (1992). Forms of Potassium in Relation to Geology and Physiography in Black Soils in South Eastern Rajasthan. Journal of Potassium Research 8(3): 210-216.

    Technical Reports / Bulletins

    1. R.S. Singh, B.L. Jain, J.D. Giri and R.L. Shyampura (2006). Soils of Bhilwara district for land use planning. NBSS PUbl. No. 135 pp 239.
    2. J.P. Sharma, J.D. Giri, R.L. Shyampura and K.S. Gajbhiye (2006). Soil Series of Gujarat. NBSS Publ. 120 pp 329.
    3. Giri, J.D., Singh, R.S., Jain, B.L. and Shyampura, R.L. (2005). Detail Soil survey and land evaluation for land use planning in Dudhai village, Anjar tehsil, Kachchh district, Gujarat. NBSS Report No.826
    4. Jain.B.L., Singh, R.S., Shyampura, R.L. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2005). Land use planning of Udaipur district – Soil Resource and Agro-ecological Assessment. NBSS Publ. No. 113, NBSS & LUP, Nagpur pp. 69.
    5. Patel, M.V., Patel, B.B., Patel, V.R., Pavana, R.P., Jadav, N.J., Patel, J.G., Patel, B.M., Giri, J.D., Shyampura, R.L. and Sharma, J.P. (2005). Guide to land use planning for Kachchh and North Gujarat. Bulletin of Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwara Agricultural University, Gujarat.
    6. Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2004). Soil resource appraisal of Res. Farm, NRC for SS, Ajmer. NBSS report no. 675.
    7. Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2004). Soil resource appraisal of Res. Farm, NRC for SS, Ajmer. NBSS report no. 675.
    8. R.L. Shyampura, R.S. Singh, R.K. Singh and A.K. Maji (2003). Soil erosion in Rajasthan. NBSS Publ. 102.
    9. Shyampura, R.L., Singh, S.K., Singh, R.S., Jain, B.L. and Gajbhiye, K.S.(2002). Soil Series of Rajasthan. NBSS. Pub. 96.
    10. Giri, J.D., Singh, R.S., Singh, S.K., Jain, B.L., Shyampura, R.L. and Gajbhiye, K.S. (2002). Soils of Ajmer district for optimizing land use. NBSS Publ. 99.
    11. Raman, S., Shekh, A.M., Patel, R.G., Velayutham, M., Shyampura, R.L., Sharma, J.P., Jain,B.L. and Giri, J.D. (2000) Natural Resource of Gujarat (Agroecological data base for regional planning) SWMP Publ. 11 Soil and Water Management Res. Unit, GAU, Navsari Campus, Gujarat.
    12. Jain, B.L., Singh, R.S., Shyampura, R.L. and Velayutham, M. (2000). Agroecological assessment of soil resources of Rajasthan for land use planning, NBSS. Pub. 81.
    13. Singh, S.K., Singh,R.S., and Shyampura, R.L. (1998). Intensive soil survey for NRCRM (ICAR) farm planning. NBSS Report 541.
    14. Das, K., Singh, S.K., Shyampura, R.L. Singh, R.S. and . Jain, B.L. (1998). Intensive soil survey for farm planning, report RAU farm Bharatpur. NBSS Tech. Report. No. 540.
    15. Shyampura, R.L., et al. (1986). Soil Survey for Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Farm. Report on Soil Survey and Land Evaluation of C.S.W.R.I. Farm, Bkaner. NBSS Tech. Report. No. 487.
    16. Jat, R.L., Jain, S.P., Gowaikat, A.S. et al. (1982). Soil Survey and Land Use Plan of District Banswara (Rajasthan). NBSS Tech. Report. No. 452.
    Book Chapters

    Book

    1. A.K. Singh and R.S. Singh (2011). Crop Modelling for Land Use Planning. Agrotech Publishing House, Udaipur.
    2. A.K.Singh and R.S.Singh (2009) Soil Suitability for Crop Productivity. Agrotech Publishing House, Udaipur.190p.

    Book Chapters

    1. Joshi, D. C., Shyampura, R.L. and Giri, J.D. (2009). Soil physiography relationship of arid region. Bhattacharya, T, Sarkar Dipak and Pal, D.K. (Eds). Soil Survey Manual. NBSS &LUP Publicaiton No. 146. 400 pp.
    2. Das, T.H., Singh, R.S. and Gangopadhyay, S.K. (2009). Watershed characterization for land use planning. Bhattacharya, T, Sarkar Dipak and Pal, D.K. (Eds). Soil Survey Manual. NBSS &LUP Publicaiton No. 146. 400 pp.
    3. Maji, A.K., Singh, R.S. and Shyampura, R.L. (2008). Soil quality and land degradation in the Western India. Natural Resources management for Sustainable Development in Western India. (Ed. Prasad et al) Allied Publishers Private Limited New Delhi. P 30-33.
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